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Space Equipment and Transportation

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Presentation on theme: "Space Equipment and Transportation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Space Equipment and Transportation

2 What is a ROCKET? A rocket or rocket vehicle is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction. Rocket engines push rockets forwards simply by throwing their exhaust backwards extremely fast.

3 History of Rockets The Chinese invented the rocket centuries ago. During the 1200’s, Chinese soldiers fired small rockets as weapons in battle.

4 Robert Goddard – The Father of Rocketry
In 1926, Goddard launched the first liquid propellant rocket, using gasoline and liquid oxygen as fuel.

5 Modern Rocketry Rocketry has enabled space technologies particularly satellites to exist, many of which impact people's everyday lives. Scientifically, rocketry has opened a window on the universe, allowing the launch of space probes to explore the solar system and space-based telescopes to obtain a clearer view of the rest of the universe.

6 What are satellites? An object that revolves around another object in a circular path In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by humans. These objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.

7 What are satellites used for?
Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites.

8 History of Satellites The First Satellites
The theory of satellites was simple enough - shoot something out into space at the right speed and on the correct trajectory and it will stay up there, orbiting Earth, for years - if not forever. Early in October 1957 communications stations started picking up a regular beeping noise coming from space. The signals were coming from Russia's Sputnik 1, the world's first man-made satellite.

9 What are space probes? Gather and transmit information to Earth
Unlike satellites that orbit Earth, space probes travel far into the solar system. Space probes carry cameras and other data gathering equipment, as well as radio transmitters and receivers.

10 Past Space Probe: Mariner 2
Early space probe 1962 Destination: Venus – verified high temperatures in Venus’ atmosphere Look in your textbook at pgs for more pictures and info of space probes.

11 Current Space Probe: Cassini-Huygen
Space probe currently studying Saturn and Saturn’s moons Launched in 1997, entered Saturn’s orbit in 2004, mission may continue until 2017 Cassini has several primary objectives: Determine the three-dimensional structure and behavior of the rings of Saturn Determine the composition of the moon surfaces and the geological history of each object Study the dynamic behavior of Saturn's atmosphere at cloud level Characterize Titan's surface

12 Future Space Probe: “JUNO”
Juno launches in August 2011 Five-year cruise to Jupiter, arriving July 2016 One year at Jupiter will complete the mission (orbiting the planet 32 times) Juno will improve our understanding of our solar system’s beginnings by revealing the origin and evolution of Jupiter. Juno will… Determine how much water is in Jupiter’s atmosphere, which helps determine which planet formation theory is correct Look deep into Jupiter’s atmosphere to measure composition, temperature, cloud motions and other properties Map Jupiter’s magnetic and gravity fields, revealing the planet’s deep structure

13 What is a space shuttle? A space shuttle is a reusable spacecraft for transporting people, satellites, and other materials to and from space. Launched standing on end Glides back to Earth like an airplane

14 STS! Space Shuttle Discovery, atop the mobile launcher platform and crawler transporter, nears the top of Launch Pad 39B after a 4.2-mile crawl from the Vehicle Assembly Building. At left are the Rotating Service Structure and the Fixed Service Structure, which will enable final preparations of the orbiter, external tank and solid rocket boosters for the STS-103 launch targeted for Dec. 6, 1999, at 2:37 a.m. EST. The mission is a "call-up" due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, both with the European Space Agency. (Photo Release Date: 11/13/1999 ) 14

15 Space Shuttle The Shuttle consists of three major parts:
• an orbiter with wings for landing • an external tank • two solid rocket boosters. At lift-off, the Shuttle stands 56 m high and weighs about 2,000,000 kg.

16 Space Shuttle - After the space shuttle reaches space, it begins to orbit Earth. There astronauts perform many different tasks. - In the cargo bay, astronauts conduct scientific experiments and determine the effects of spaceflight on the human body. - When the cargo bay isn’t used as a lab, the shuttle can launch, repair, and retrieve satellites. NASA Photo ID: STS031(S) File Name: jpg Film Type: 35mm Date Taken: 04/29/90 Title: STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, glides toward EAFB landing Description: STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, approaches Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California landing facility. This view was captured moments before the landing gear was deployed and shows OV-103's port side and its underside of carefully placed heat shield tiles. OV-103 came to a complete wheel stop at 6:51:00 am (Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)) on concrete runway 22. Subject terms: AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY APPROACH DISCOVERY (ORBITER) SPACECRAFT LANDING STS-31 THERMAL PROTECTION TILES 16

17 What is a Space Station? A space station is a structure designed for humans to work and live in outer space for a period of time.

18 World’s First Space Station
The world's first space station was launched by the Russians in 1971. Salyut 1 was a modified spaceship that could only house a crew of three.

19 First American Space Station
One of three Saturn rockets remaining from the Apollo program was kept flight ready. Its third stage was modified into the Skylab space station by converting the fuel tank into cabins. Skylab was launched into orbit in May 1973. The 75-ton space station hosted 3 crews of 3 astronauts, each for 171 days.

20 Our Current Space Station: The ISS
The International Space Station (ISS) is an internationally developed research facility that is being assembled in low Earth orbit. On-orbit construction of the station began in 1998 and is scheduled for completion by late The station is expected to remain in operation until at least 2020. With a greater mass than that of any previous space station, the ISS can be seen from Earth with the naked eye, and is by far the largest artificial satellite that has ever orbited Earth. (the size of a football field) The ISS serves as a research laboratory that has a microgravity environment in which crews conduct experiments in biology, chemistry, human biology, physics, astronomy and meteorology


22 The role of the ISS To prepare for efforts on the Moon, Mars, and beyond Understand the space environment, long duration living, and working impact on astronaut health Allows testing of new technologies, materials, robotics STS (14 October 2002) --- Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, works near the S0 (S-Zero) Truss on the International Space Station (ISS) during the mission’s third and final scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA). The airlock spur, a route used by spacewalkers to get from the Quest airlock on the station to the outpost's truss, is visible in the upper left portion of the frame. STS (13 April 2002) --- Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, STS-110 mission specialist, anchored on the mobile foot restraint on the International Space Station’s (ISS) Canadarm2, moves toward the station’s newly installed S0 (S-zero) truss during this second scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, worked in tandem with Morin on the space walk. 22

23 Finished with C-Notes Write a 4-5 sentences summary of you C-Notes
Glue C-Notes onto next right hand page Left hand page: Pick 5 words and draw a picture Under the picture write 2-3 sentences explaining your picture When a word is used from your C-Notes underline it.

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