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Traveling Into Space Chapter 19 section 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Traveling Into Space Chapter 19 section 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Traveling Into Space Chapter 19 section 5

2 Rocket- a device that expels gas in one direction to move in the opposite direction
First rockets in China, 1100s, then in 1200s Chinese used gun powder A rocket moves forward when gases shooting out of the back of the rocket push it in the opposite direction For every force, or action, there is an equal and opposite force, or reaction

3 Thrust- The reaction force that propels a rocket forward
Amount of thrust depends on several factors including mass and speed of the gases propelled out of the rocket Velocity-speed in a given direction The greater the thrust, the greater a rocket’s velocity In order to lift off the ground, a rocket must have more upward thrust than the downward force of gravity


5 How Do Rockets Work?

6 Velocity Orbital Velocity- the velocity a rocket must achieve to establish an orbit around Earth Velocity of 40,200 km/hr or more will allow rocket to escape into space Escape velocity- the velocity a rocket must reach to fly beyond a planet’s gravitational pull

7 Multistage Rocket- proposed by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in 1903
The total weight of the rocket is greatly reduced as the rocket rises Smaller rockets, or stages, are placed one on top of the other and then fired in order; the empty fuel container falls away then the next stage ignites and continued powering the rocket

8 Space Race Space Race- The rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union over the exploration of space Tensions increased in 1957 when Sputnik I was launched into orbit by Soviets Satellite- An object that revolves around another object in space Moons-natural; spacecraft orbiting Earth-artificial US responded in early 1958 by launching Explorer 1 into orbit

9 Space Race continued Later in 1958, US established a government agency in charge of its space program called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) In 1961, Soviets launched first human into space, but less than 1 month later, Americans sent first American, Alan Shepard, into space in Freedom 7 First American to orbit Earth (3 times) was John Glenn in a space capsule called Friendship 7 in 1962 American effort to land astronauts on the moon was named the Apollo program

10 Space Race continued U.S. spacecraft Surveyor was sent to moon and landed, did not sink into surface, proved that moon had solid surface July 1969, three American astronauts circled the moon aboard Apollo 11. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin entered a tiny spacecraft called Eagle. On July 20, it landed on the Sea of Tranquility. A few hours later, Armstrong set foot on the surface of the moon and said “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

11 Space shuttle- a spacecraft that can carry a crew into space, return to Earth and then be reused for the same purpose This did not happen before 1983 Includes large rockets that launch it into orbit then fall away NASA uses space shuttles in important tasks, such as taking satellites into orbit, repairing damaged satellites, and carrying astronauts and equipment to and from space stations

12 Space station- A large artificial satellite on which people can live and work for long periods; provides a place where long- term observations and experiments can be carried into space 1970s and 1980s, US and Soviets placed them in orbit In 1980s the US and 15 other countries, began planning for construction of the International Space Station. First module place into orbit in 1998

13 Space Stations

14 Space probe- a spacecraft that carries scientific instruments that can collect data, but has no human crew; gather data about distant parts of the solar system where humans cannot easily travel. Each probe has a power system, a communication system, and scientific instruments Rover- a small robot, located on some probes, that moves around on the surface of something; typically to collect and analyze soil and rock samples

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