§7.1 Introduction §7.2 Airport Chart Information
§7.1 Introduction The Airport Charts can help you find your way around the taxiways at an unfamiliar airport. When you are airborne, you have a panel full of avionics to confirm you seem to be on your own for navigation.
This chart is located in one of two places in your Airway Manual: On the back of the first approach chart As a standalone chart located before the approach charts Formats of Airport Charts: The “classic” chart format The “Briefing Strip TM ” chart format
The “classic” chart format provides communication information on the right of the chart heading, with airport information on the left. Heading of “classic” chart format
Heading of “Briefing Strip TM ” chart format This chart format distributes the same information across the top of the chart so that you are reading it from left to right. It’s a widely used format of airport charts.
§7.2 Airport Chart Information The airport chart contains four primary sections: Heading Plan view Additional runway information Takeoff and alternate minimums
Plan View Heading
Additional Runway Information Takeoff and Alternate Minimums
§7.2.1 Heading The top of each airport chart provides standard information about airport, including the location and airport name, elevation, and communication frequencies.
§ Heading Border Distinct areas of the heading: Location and Airport Name Chart Index Number and Dates ICAO Location Identifier and Airport Information Communications Row
Location and Airport Name Location Name/City Name Airport Name Select the right airport within a particular city
Chart Index Number and Dates Chart Index Number Chart Date
ICAO Location Identifier and Airport Information The airport identifier, unique to each airport, is a combination of the ICAO regional designation and the airport’s governing agency designation （ IATA). Airport Identifier Airport Elevation ARP Coordinates Coordinates represent the airport location as provided by the controlling authority
Communications Row ATIS Frequency Delivery Frequency Ground Frequency Departure Frequency Tower Frequency
§7.2.2 Plan View The airport chart plan view portrays an overhead view of the airport, it can provide you with graphical information about the airport, such as its runways and lighting systems. Except the length and width of stop way and taxiway, lighting system, the other part of charts are portrayed on scale.
§ Scales, Coordinate Tick Marks and Magnetic Variation To help you measure distance, the plan view includes a scale showing both feet and meters. The scale a chart always use range from 1inch=1000feet to 1inch=6000feet.
Scale of the plan view of this chart is 1inch=1000feet
Latitude and longitude coordinate tick marks are shown in tenths of minute increments along the inside edges of the plan view. If you are flying an aircraft with advanced navigation equipment, such as an inertial navigation system (INS), these tick marks allow you to update your position more accurately on the ramp before flight, and improve equipment accuracy during flight.
Latitude and longitude coordinate tick marks
The magnetic variation at the airport may be depicted graphically in the plan view. The arrow (s) enhance spatial orientation by graphically illustrating that the top of the chart is true north and therefore the orientation of the airport environment may not be squarely aligned to the plan view. If you do not see the magnetic variation arrow (s) symbol, look for the variation in the heading.
Runway Number Longitude Latitude Approach Light Runway Length ARP RVR Tower Scale Runway Elevation
§ Runway Information The main focus of the airport diagram is to show the layout of the runways, and to provide information about the runways’ lengths, surfaces, and elevations. If you need additional runway information, such as lighting systems and usable lengths, you can check them in the Additional Runway Information table, located either below the plan view or on the back side of the airport chart.
The Runway Information is focused on the following items: Runway Numbers Runway Elevations and Length Displaced Thresholds, Stopways, Overruns Runway Surface Arrester Gear and Barriers Non-Runway Landing Areas
Runway Numbers and Magnetic Direction Runway numbers are located at the end of each runway. Jeppesen also lists the actual magnetic direction of the runway, which allows you to accurately compass and heading indicator cross-check the magnetic when lined up with the runway centerline prior to flight.
Runway number is magnetic unless followed by “T” for true in the far north. Runway number and, when known, magnetic direction unless followed by “T” for true in the far north.
Seaplane operating area, or water runway. Closed runway. Temporarily closed runways will retain their length and runway numbers.
Runway Elevations and Length Elevations of the runways’ entrance and the lengths of the runways are usually marked at the end and the middle of the runways. Runway number and Magnetic Direction Length of 07R Entrance elevation of 07L
Displaced Thresholds and Stop-ways Displaced thresholds reduce the length of runway available for landings. This portion of runway prior to a displaced threshold is available for takeoffs in either direction, and landings only from the opposite direction. Stopways or overruns are areas beyond the takeoff runway at least as wide as the runway and centered upon its extended centerline. They may be used to decelerate an airplane during an aborted takeoff.
Runway Surface In the plan view of the charts, different symbols are used to portray different runway surfaces. Paved runway Unpaved runway, such as turf, dirt, or gravel. The type of surface is usually printed on the chart next to the runway.
Seaplane operating area or water runway. Dashed lines indicate the operating area. Pierced steel planking (PSP) Area under construction
Arrester Gear and Barriers Certain airports are equipped with a means of rapidly stopping military aircraft on a runway. This equipment, normally referred to as emergency arresting gear, generally consists of pendant cables supported over the runway surface by rubber “donuts.” Although most devices are located in the overrun areas, a few of these arresting systems have cables stretched over operational areas the ends of a runway.
Non-Runway Landing Areas In addition to runways, the airport chart indicated landing areas as follows: Helicopter landing pad Authorized landing area (may be used on Australia charts with limited runway source information
§ Taxiways and Aprons Taxiways link airport parking areas to the runways. On the airport, you can easily taxiways by their continuous yellow centerline stripes. On the airport chart, you can distinguish taxiways and aprons from runways by their light gray color.
Taxiway and apron Permanently closed Taxiway
Occasionally, the chart may show the locations of holding positions. These taxiway markings help keep aircraft clear of runways and, at controlled airports, mark the point that separates the responsibilities of ground control from those of the tower. Hold lines may be located at taxiway intersections.
Designated stop bar or designated holding position Category Ⅱ / Ⅲ holding position
§ Airport Facilities The airport diagram includes symbols depicting the main buildings at the airport and any equipment on the airport that may help pilots in navigation and flight planning.
Buildings ARP Airport Identification Beacon Navids RVR RVR with letter Cone Tee Tetrahedron
Buildings Large Buildings Buildings
Airport Reference Point The airport reference point (ARP) is at the approximate geographic center of all usable runway surfaces, and is the point from which official latitude and longitude coordinates are derived. The center of the crosshairs marks the ARP’s exact location. When the ARP is on a runway centerline, an arrow points to its exact location.
Navigational aids On-airport navaid, such as VOR,NDB,or LCTR (locators, other than locators associated with ILS). When navaids are offset from the runway, you may need to make significant adjustments in your final approach course, once the runway is in slight.
RVR measuring site (transimissometer). The primary instrument runways at major airports may have as many as three transimissometers providing RVR readings, which include touchdown RVR, mid-RVR, and rollout RVR. RVR RVR with letter RVR measuring devices
Wind direction indicators Cone or wind sock. It is used at both towered and non-towered airports. It can provide the present wind conditions near the runway’s touchdown zone. Wind tee. Determine the wind direction from a wind tee, but it doesn't indicate wind intensity or gusty conditions. The tail of the tee aligns itself like a weather vane into the wind, so you can take off or land on the runway that most closely parallels the direction of the tee.
Tetrahedron. It is a landing direction indicator, usually located near a wind direction indicator. It may swing around with the small end pointing into the wind, or it may be manually positioned to show landing direction.
§ Lights and Beacons The majority of lighting symbols on the airport diagram are approach lights and beacons. Approach Lights Beacons
Approach Lights Approach lights are normally shown to scale in a pattern similar to the way they appear at the airport.
NameAbbreviation Chart Symbol Real Composing Approach light system with sequenced flashing lights ALSF-I
NameAbbreviation Chart Symbol Real Composing Approach light system with sequenced flashing lights and red side row lights the last 1,000′ ALSF-II
NameAbbreviation Chart Symbol Real Composing Medium intensity approach light system with runway alignment indicator lights. MALSR
NameAbbreviation Chart Symbol Real Composing Medium intensity approach light system with sequenced flashing lights MALSF
NameAbbreviation Chart Symbol Real Composing Omni- directional approach light system ODALS
NameAbbreviation Chart Symbol Real Composing Runway alignment indicator lights RAIL
NameAbbreviation Chart Symbol Real Composing CALVERT Approach Lights CALVERT
NameAbbreviation Chart Symbol Real Composing CALVERT （ CAT Ⅱ / Ⅲ） Approach Lights CALVERT （ CAT Ⅱ / Ⅲ）
When approach lights extend to a displaced threshold, you see the following symbol:
Beacons Beacons are depicted on the airport diagram as stars “ ”.When the depicted beacon is the airport identification beacon, the star is circled “ ” and may appear with its MSL elevation.
Reference Points A representative selection of reference points known to Jeppesen is depicted in the airport plan view. When provided, the elevation of reference points is expressed as above mean sea level.
Man-made Reference Points Unknown Structure Tower Building Road Railway Pole Line Lighted Pole
Natural Reference Points Nature Terrain Bluff Trees
§7.2.3 Additional Runway Information Some required airport information, such as lighting systems and usable lengths, cannot be portrayed in enough detail in the airport chart plan view. These information appears below the plan view in the box titled “Additional Runway Information.” This table provides information for each runway charted in the airport diagram, except for permanently closed runways, ultralight runways, and ski strips.
Additional Runway Information of Hong Kong INTL Runway Light System RVR Runway Width Usable Length Note
The first column lists each runway, grouped in approach end pairs. Three types of information are provided for each runway: Lighting systems and equipment Usable lengths Width
§ Lighting Systems and Equipment Runway light System includes HIRL 、 CL 、 TDZ. The interval of HIRL is 60m ； interval of CL is 15(30)m
Runway Light System (1) HIRL The HIRL systems generally have variable intensity controls that can be adjusted from the control tower. When there is not an operating control tower, you may be able to adjust the intensity using the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) or UNICOM frequency. On instrument runways, edge lights are white until the last 2,000’ (or half of the runway, if less than 2,000’), where amber replaces white.
(2) CL Runway centerline lights (CL) are flush- mounted in the runway to help pilots maintain the centerline during takeoff and landing. Standard centerline lights are spaced at intervals of 50 feet, beginning 75 feet from the landing threshold and extending to within 75 feet of the opposite end of the runway.
At the approach end of the runway, centerline lights are white. They change to alternating red and white lights when pilots have 3,000 feet of remaining runway, and they are all red for the last 1,000 feet of runway. These lights are bidirectional so pilots can see the correct color in the direction from which pilots are approaching them.
Non-standard centerline lights are noted in parentheses: CL (white): All lights are white for the full length of the runway. CL (non-std): Non-standard, configuration unknown. CL(50W,20R&W,20R ): Non-standard, configuration known. First 5,000’ white lights; next 2,000’ alternating red and white lights; last 2,000’ red lights.
(3) TDZ TDZ (Touchdown zone lighting) helps pilots identify the touchdown zone when visibility is reduced. The lighting consists of a series of white lights flush-mounted in the runway. The lights begin approximately 100feet from the landing threshold and extend 3,000 feet down the runway or to the midpoint of the runway, whichever is less. These lights are visible only from the approach end of the runway.
(4) HST There will also contain HST in the runway lighting system. High-speed taxiway turnoff lights are flush- mounted alternating green and yellow lights spaced at 50-foot intervals. They define the curbed path from near the runway centerline to the center of the intersecting taxiway. Taxiway centerline lights are green and taxiway edge lights are blue.
Approach Lights Airport lighting systems range from the simple lighting needed for VFR night landings to sophisticated systems that guide you to the runway in IFR conditions. Be sure to familiarize yourself with each type of lighting and its significance to VFR, as well as IFR, operations.
Approach light---ALSF- Ⅱ
Availability of RVR Measuring Equipment RVR is listed in this section of the airport chart when the specific runway has RVR measuring equipment. Unless otherwise stated, this equipment includes measuring stations at the touchdown zone, mid- runway, and rollout end. The RVR measuring site may have an identifying letter or number.
§ Usable Lengths When usable runway lengths differ from those depicted in the airport plan view, the lengths are specified in the “Usable Lengths” columns in the Additional Runway Information section of the airport chart.
Stopways, overruns, and clearways are not included in these figures. Blank columns indicate that the runway length depicted in the airport plan view applies. An NA in any of these columns indicates that takeoffs or landings are not authorized for the runway shown.
When taking off, the usable runway length is limited, the length detonated is from the point that the aircrafts begin to taking off to the end of usable length. Stopways and clearways are not included. When the usable length is blank, the runway length depicted in the airport plan view can be used.
§ Runway Width The last column of the Additional Runway information section lists the runway width. Knowing the widths of an airport’s runways can help compensate for runway-width illusion. A wider-than-usual runway can have the opposite effect, with the risk of leveling out high and landing hard, or overshooting the runway.
A narrower-than-usual runway can create the illusion that the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is. If you do not realize the runway is narrow, the illusion may entice you to fly a lower approach, with the risk of striking objects along the approach path, or landing short.
You can also determine the runway width by counting the number of runway threshold stripes, as indicated in the following table:
§ Runway Restriction Notes Note underneath the additional runway information table may provide several types of information.
Runway is grooved; PAPI of 07L is fixed at the left of runway, angle 3 ° ; PAPI of 25R is fixed at the right of runway, angle 3°; HSTIL are located at High-speed taxiways A4 and A6.
§7.2.4 Minimums The bottom part of an airport chart includes up to three separate sections: Takeoff minimums Obstacle departure procedures Alternate minimums
Takeoff minimums, which list the RVR and VIS required during takeoff, are usually depicted on Jeppesen chart worldwide. Takeoff Minimums
Obstacle Departure Procedures Obstacle departure procedures, depicted on United States charts under certain criteria, provide a textual description of flight procedures. These help you transition between the airport and the enroute structure while maintaining necessary obstacle clearance margins, particularly in a non-radar environment.
Alternate Minimums Alternate minimums are usually charted in the United States to define the ceiling and visibility required for an airport to be designated as an alternate airport.
§ Takeoff Minimums The takeoff minimums table lists the RVR and VIS minimums required to ensure visual guidance during the takeoff run. A ceiling is not required for take-off, except when specified by the governing authority to ensure obstacle clearance. When takeoff minimums are specified in both ceiling and visibility, both values must be available to the pilot.
When minimum vary between runways, separate columns show the minimums that apply to each runway, with the best opportunity runways on the left. Each runway column shows the minimums, in ascending order, left to right. The conditions for those minimums appear at the top of each column. Minimums are also based on aircraft category under JAR OPS, or on number of engines under United States Operations Specifications.
The minimums, with conditions, appear in one or more columns: Standard takeoff minimums Lower-than-standard published takeoff minimums Higher-than-standard takeoff minimums
Standard Takeoff Minimums Standard takeoff minimums are defined by the governing authorities and apply regardless of the lighting and other equipment available to aid the pilot, unless the governing authority has published more restrictive minimums. The Standard takeoff minimums of America are: One or Two engines, RVR 50(5000FT) or VIS 1mile; Three or Four engines, RVR 24(2400FT) or VIS 1/2mile.
Lower-than-standard Published Takeoff Minimums Lower-than-standard published takeoff minimums may be published based on availability of runway markings, lighting, and/or low visibility reporting equipment such as RVR. The required conditions are listed in the column heading.
Higher-than-standard Takeoff Minimums Higher-than-standard takeoff minimums may be public shed when obstructions or other factors require greater visibility during IFR climb out. These higher minimums may be reduced if the aircraft can meet certain requirements, such as a specified climb gradient.
CL operative, centre line of the runway can be seen. One of the TDZ, middle and end of the runaway RVR inoperative, meanwhile the other two operative, the minimum for take off is RVR600FT. Minimum for adequate Vis Reference One or Two engines, RVR 50(5000FT) or VIS 1mile; Three or Four engines, RVR 24(2400FT) or VIS 1/2mile.
When take off from 6R, the light 、 visual reference couldn’t meet the standard, the take off minimum require ceiling to be 200ft,meanwh ile VIS 1.25SM. Take off from 6R, keep Minimum climb grads 281FT/MIN until climb to 400FT.
The following is a part of Hong Kong airport which is revised on October 28 th,2005. The minimums for the air carriers which adopt JAA and FAR121 take off from Hong Kong are listed in the following chart. For all airports authorized Category Ⅱ / Ⅲ, if the RVR/VIS is below 400m, It is required to establish and apply LVP procedure when taking off.
Takeoff minimums published under the title “AIR CARRIER (JAA)” are based on JAR OPS-1 Subpart E. These minimums are provided for operators not applying takeoff minimums as specified under AIR CARRIER.They are shown in the following table. The criterion of this table is the category of aircraft, but not according to the number of engines, as FAR dose.
§ Obstacle Departure Procedures Departure procedures are used after takeoff to provide a transition between the airport and the enroute structure. They may be published: To help simplify complex clearance delivery procedures Reduce frequency congestion Ensure obstacle clearance Control the flow of traffic around an airport Reduce fuel consumption Include noise abatement procedures
Textual departure procedures for obstacle clearance can be found below the minimum columns at the bottom of many United States airport charts, under the title “Takeoff & Obstacle Departure Procedure.”
§ Alternate Minimums When preparing your IFR flight plan, you must consider the weather reports and forecasts for your destination airport at your estimated time of arrival, plus or minus one hour. If the weather conditions are poorer than those specified by the governing agency, you must list an alternate airport on your flight plan. To qualify as an alternate, the airport you select, and its forecasted weather for your arrival time, must meet certain conditions.