Presentation on theme: "Final Honors Biology Exam Review 2014. WARNING!!!!!! This is not a substitute for your own study notes. You are to do your own preparation. I only make."— Presentation transcript:
Final Honors Biology Exam Review 2014
WARNING!!!!!! This is not a substitute for your own study notes. You are to do your own preparation. I only make a few slides and I can only upload this while I am at school. Preparing for the exam is YOUR responsibility.
What is the role of oxygen in cellular respiration? Make water Make glucose Final electron acceptor Excite electrons ANSWER: final electron acceptor
How much ATP does each process make when one glucose is broken down? Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC and chemiosmosis ANSWER: 2, 2, 34
Which goes with lactic acid fermentation and which goes with alcoholic fermentation? Produces CO 2 Produces product in animal muscles Produces ethanol Produced by yeast
Which goes with lactic acid fermentation and which goes with alcoholic fermentation? Produces CO 2 Alcoholic Produces product in animal muscles Lac Produces ethanol Alcoholic Produced by yeast Alcoholic
What products are made at the end of glycolysis of glucose? FADH 2 ATP NADH NADPH ADP Pyuruvate OAA
What products are made at the end of glycolysis of glucose?
For each molecule of glucose broken down, how many are formed in Krebs cycle? ATP 2 NADH 6 FADH 2 2 CO 2 4
What process regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue? Fermentation
In what organelle do these take place? Cellular respiration Mitochondrion Photosynthesis chloroplast
Find the oxidation and reduction in the cellular respiration equation:
FIND: ETC, H+ ions collection, reduction of NADH2, chemiosmosis, water forming
CHAPTER 7 Convert 400 calories to kilocalories And to Calories: ANSWER: 0.4 kilocalories of 0.4 kilocalories
Label the leaf and chloroplast:
What is the chemical equation to photosynthesis?
How do the equations of photosynthesis and cellular respiration compare?
What is produced at the end of PSI and PSII? Water Oxygen NADPH NADH ADP ATP Glucose
What is produced at the end of PSI and PSII? Oxygen NADPH And ATP at the end of chemiosmosis
Which enzyme allows for the carbon fixation of CO 2 in the Calvin Cycle? Helicase Calvinase Carbase Rubisco ANSWER: rubisco
In the LDR where do the H+ ions accumulate? Matrix Stroma Thylakoid interior Inner membrane space ANSWER: thylakoid interior (lumen)
The changing of unusable carbon into usable carbon is known as: Glycolysis Fixation Respiration Carbonation ANSWER: fixation
What is the ATP synthase used for? H+ ions pass through this enzyme complex to turn and cause P to join ADP to make ATP. Where is an ATP synthase found? In membrane of thylakoid disk and also the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
Label the following:
What pigments are absorbed and reflected of chlorophyll a? Absorbed: Blue and red Reflected Green and yellow
Which gas contributes the most to the greenhouse effect? Carbon dioxide Oxygen Water vapor Nitrogen ANSWER: carbon dioxide
CHAPTER 8 Cell Division Check if it refers to A = asexual reproduction or S = sexual reproduction. Two offspring makes gametes Four offspring meiosis Diploid to diploid mitosis Diploid to haploid One parent Two parents
CHAPTER 8 Cell Division Check if it refers to A = asexual reproduction or S = sexual reproduction. Two offspring A makes gametes S Four offspring S meiosis S Diploid to diploid A mitosis A Diploid to haploid S One parent A Two parents S
Match the genetic structure: Loose DNA + protein Chromatin Paired, tightly coiled, identical DNA + protein Chromatids Single strand of somewhat coiled DNA + protein chromosome
What are the phases of mitosis? Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
Identify the phases of mitosis:
anaphase telophase prophase metaphase
Which happens in prometaphase of mitosis? Nuclear envelope dissolves Single chromosomes move to the poles Sister chromatids are tightly coiled Nuclear envelope reforms Centrioles are moving to the poles Mitotic spindles form
Which happens in prometaphase of mitosis? Nuclear envelope dissolves Sister chromatids are tightly coiled Centrioles are moving to the poles Mitotic spindles form
How is cytokinesis different in plants than in animal cells? ANIMALS: Cleavage Furrow PLANTS: Cell Plate
What makes the chromatids move to opposite poles? Spindles shorten Centrioles shorten Nuclear envelope pinches them ANSWER: spindles shorten
What causes cells to stop growing in a Petri dish? Law of segregation Law of independent assortment Density-dependent inhibition Anchorage dependence ANSWER: density-dependent inhibition
Which might be true of cancer cells? Unable to replicate Stopped in metaphase Continue to divide ANSWER: continue to divide
Where does the type of cancer come from? Carcinoma Skin or lining of digestive tract Sarcoma Bone or muscle Lymphoma Lymph system Leukemia Bone marrow
What is the homologous chromosome?
If given the haploid number, what is the diploid number? N = 5 2N = 10 N = 23 2N = 46
What phases of meiosis are these?
Metaphase II Metaphase I prophase I anaphase II
How many possible combinations are there of chromosomes in meiosis if haploid number is 4? Remember 2 N So… 2 4 = 16
Which is not a source of genetic variability? Crossing over in meiosis I Random fertilization Independent orientation of chromosomes Mitosis ANSWER: mitosis
What genetic disorder?
Which are Mendelian genetics? Dominant and recessive Law of segregation Codominance Incomplete dominance Homozygous and heterozygous pleiotropy
Which are Mendelian genetics? Dominant and recessive Law of segregation Homozygous and heterozygous
What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of this cross? A = agile a = clumsy
What are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of this cross? Genotypic: AA : Aa : aa 1 : 2 : 1 Phenotypic: Agile : clumsy 3 : 1
Cross RrFf X RrFf Phenotypic ratio: R = red R = white F= fancy f = plain
Red Fancy 9 Red Plain 3 White fancy 3 White plainn 1
The fertilization of an egg with a sperm forms: Fetus Zygote Parent cell Umbilical cord ANSWER: zygote
Which scientist did this? Used radioactive P and S in bacteriopage viruses to determine DNA was the genetic material? Avery Watson and Crick Hershey and Chase Rosalind Franklin Irwin Chargaff
Which scientist did this? Used radioactive P and S in bacteriopage viruses to determine DNA was the genetic material? Hershey and Chase
Which scientist did this? Won a Nobel Prize for determining the structure of DNA? Avery Watson and Crick Hershey and Chase Rosalind Franklin Irwin Chargaff
Which scientist did this? Won a Nobel Prize for determining the structure of DNA? Watson and Crick and Wilkins
How will I know if Fluffy is FF or Ff? Cross her with ff and see if the homozygous gene appears.
What is the probability of an offspring of AaBbCc? Parents are: AaBbCc X aaBBCc What Law will solve this?
What is the probability of an offspring of AaBbcc? Parents are: AaBbCc X aaBbCc Aa = ½ Bb = ½ 1/ 16 cc = ¼ LAW OF MULTIPLICATION
If you crossed a Black dog with a White dog and Got a Gray Dog it is… Codominance Complete Dominance Incomplete Dominance Recessiveness ANSWER: Incomplete Dominance
II-3 in the below family has two brothers and three sons with classical hemophilia (factor VIII deficiency). Now she is pregnant again. How likely is it that this child will also have hemophilia? A. 100% for a son and 50% for a daughter B. 100% for a son, zero for a daughter C. 50% for a son, zero for a daughter D. 50% for both sons and daughters E. 25% for a son and zero for a daughter ANSWER: C do Punnetts for X C X c X X C y
Do a Cross of two Achrondroplasia parents: What are their chances of having a normal height child?
2 Achondro parents Normal = aa = ¼ Or 1/3 of possible living births
What are linked genes? Those that are on the same chromosomes and are inherited together.
Cross a color-blind father with a heterozygous normal sight mother:
Calculate the Recombination Frequency of: The fruit fly offspring had the following phenotypic distribution: wild type = 778 black-vestigial = 785 black-normal = 158 gray-vestigial = 162 What is the recombination frequency between these genes for body color and wing type. SOLUTION LINKSOLUTION
Which enzyme uncoils the spiral of DNA? Helicase Topoisomerase Ligase DNA polymerase ANSWER: Topoisomerase
What holds the DNA strands apart so the nucleotides can enter the open DNA? DNA polymerase Helicase SSB’s Helicase ANSWER: SSB’s
What makes up mature mRNA? Introns only Exons only Both introns and exons ANSWER: exons only
What is the complementary strand of DNA? A T T C C G ANSWER: T A A G G C
If GCT is the original DNA, What is the complementary mRNA? ANSWER: CGA What is the complementary tRNA? ANSWER: GCU
What is Chargaff’s rule? A. amounts of A=T and C=G B. amounts of A=C and G=T C. amounts of A=G and C=T D. amounts of A, T, C, and G are equal ANSWER: A
What amino acids do these form? AUG CCG UAC CCC UAG Methionine - proline - tyrosine - proline- STOP
Where is the sugar? The phosphate? The nitrogenous bases?
Phosphate Sugar Nitrogenous base
Which of the following is a purine? Uracil Thymine Cytosine Adenine ANSWER: adenine
Which of the following is correct for RNA? Double stranded Single stranded Contains uracil Contains thymine Can be found only in the nucleus Can be found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Which of the following is correct for RNA? Single stranded Contains uracil Can be found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Which infection forms a prophage? Lysogenic Lytic ANSWER: lysogenic
What do you call the 3 bases of: DNA - mRNA - tRNA ANSWER: triplet - codon - anticodon
Identify the parts of protein synthesis:
What is the mutation? ORIGINAL DNA: AAA AUG CCC CUA MUTATION: AAA GUA CCC CUA A. insertion B. deletion C. translocation D. inversion ANSWER: inversion
Which mutations will be inherited? A. from both somatic and sex cells B. from only sex cells C. from only somatic cells ANSWER: B
What would be the DNA bases to join these single strands? A T T C C G T A A G G C G C T A ANSWER: A T T C C G C G A T T A A G G C G C T A
What process separate DNA according to size and charge? A. PCR B. gel electrophoresis C. cloning D. probing ANSWER: gel electrophoresis
What is the definition of evolution? A. change in a population over time B. process in which an organism becomes extinct C. reproductive isolation of members of certain species D. replacement of one community by another ANSWER: A
Scientific age of the Earth A. 60,000 years old B. 4.5 million years old C. 4.5 billion years old ANSWER: C
Define homologous structures: A. same structures, same functions, same origins B. same structures, different functions, same origins C. different structures, same functions, same origins D. different structures, same functions, different origins ANSWER: B
Inherited traits that help an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment is called: A. adaptations B. mutations C. petrification D. evolution ANSWER: A
If you have a large number of differences of amino acids in a protein found in two different species suggest that: A. they evolved in similar environments B. they are closely related C. the are distantly related to one another D. they are the same species ANSWER: C
What is a group of populations whose individuals have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offsping? A. POPULATION B. SPECIES C. COMMUNITY D. ECOSYSTEM Answer: SPECIES
If A=.7 and a=.3, what is the frequency of the homozygous dominant individuals? A..49 B..09 C..42 D. 1 ANSWER: A HINT: USE YOUR HARDY- WEINBERG EQUATION
Which graph is showing directional evolution? A. B. C. ANSWER: A
Darwin did not know about: A. fossils B. genes C. gene flow D. artificial selection ANSWER: B
Which phylogenetic tree shows the most diversity? A B C ANSWER: C
What are same structures, same origin, different function? A. homologous B. analagous ANSWER: homologous
Which scientist wrote the “Origin of Species” and agrees with gradualism? Stephen Jay Gould Lyell Charles Darwin ANSWER: Darwin
Which graph shows stabilizing selection?
What is genetic drift? The movement of alleles in and out of a population. The change in the frequency of alleles in a population. Change in the gene pool of a population due to chance. ANSWER: Change in the gene pool of a population due to chance.
What is the criteria for a new speccies? Must look alike Must be able to mate Must be able to mate and have fertile offspring ANSWER: Must be able to mate and have fertile offspring
What do we call when many species form from an ancestral one due to their adaptations to the environment. Adaptive radiation Coevolution Convergent evolution ANSWER: adaptive radiation
Which is allopatric and which is sympatric evolution?