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Honors Biology CHAPTER 8 REVIEW “Sex in the Cell City”

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1 Honors Biology CHAPTER 8 REVIEW “Sex in the Cell City”

2 #1 Contrast asexual and sexual reproduction: ASEXUAL 1 parent Forms identical cells Forms 2 daughter cells SEXUAL 2 parents Forms different cells Forms 4 daughter cells

3 #2 Compare: Chromatin, Chromosomes, Chromatids

4 ANSWER ALL ARE DNA + PROTEIN Chromatin – loose in interphase Chromosomes – dense and coiled in mitosis- connected by a centromere Chromatid – condensed - paired with identical sister chromatid

5 To determine the number of chromosomes, count the centromere regions There are 3 chromosomes here There are 6 chromosomes here

6 #3 What do you call… A fertilized egg Zygote Fertilization Joining of the egg and sperm

7 #4 What do you call asexual reproduction in prokaryotes? Binary fission What do you call asexual reproduction in eukaryotes? mitosis

8 Asexual and Sexual Repro How do the chromosome numbers compare before and after reproduction in each? EXAMPLE: If the original cell had 20 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would each cell have after each type of reproduction?

9 ANSWER Sexual Reproduction -resulting cells have half the number of chromosomes (start with 20 – end with 10 chromosomes) Diploid to haploid Asexual Reproduction -resulting cells have the identical number of chromosomes (start and end with 20 chromosomes) Diploid to diploid

10 #5Contrast DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Shape Size complexity

11 ANSWER #5 Chromosomes differ in… PROKARYOTES One Circular chromosome Smaller (3,000 genes in bacterium) simpler EUKARYOTES Many Long strands of chromosomes Larger ( 100,000 genes in humans) More complex

12 #4 Compare the number of genes: Humans to bacteria ANSWER: 100,000 to 3,000

13 6. Put in correct order Telophase Anaphase Metaphase Prophase Prometaphase

14 6. ANSWER P PM M A T –Prophase –Prometaphase –Metaphase –Anaphase –Telophase

15 7. How does nuclear membrane change? In prometaphase dissolves In telophase reforms

16 8. What is…? Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm

17 8. How is cytokinesis different in… PLANT CELLS ANIMAL CELLS

18 8. ANSWER PLANT CELLS Form cell plate ANIMAL CELLS Form a cleavage furrow by pinching in the cytoplasm

19 8. (continued) Define: Cell plate Cleavage furrow

20 8. ANSWER Cell plate In plant cells the cell wall will form Cleavage Furrow Pinching of the cytoplasm by actin pulling like a drawstring

21 9. What goes on in each? G 1 S G 2

22 ANSWER G 1 grows in size, increases organelles S DNA synthesis (replicates) G 2 makes centrioles for cell division + growth

23 What is the purpose of… Mitosis? A. make bigger cells B. make exact copies of cells in two daughter cells C. make copies of cells with twice the number of chromosomes D. decrease the number of cells

24 ANSWER B. make exact copies of cells in two daughter cells

25 10. Locate Chromatids Centromeres Asters Centrioles spindles

26 10. ANSWER Chromatids Centromeres asters Spindles centrioles

27 11. Spindles What is the difference between the kinetochore and the non-kinetochore spindles? Kinetochore spindles are attached to the chromatids and shorten Non-kinetochore spindles go pole-to-pole and lengthen the cell

28 11. What makes the… Chromatids move to the poles (centrioles)? Kinetochore spindles shorten and motor proteins power the movement

29 11. ANSWER kinesin motor proteinkinesin motor protein Motor Proteins (dynein)-use ATP to grab and move the chromatid

30 12. Growth Factor Chemical produced outside of the cell to start the cells to begin the cell cycle EX: when you have a cut

31 12. What is the purpose of a growth factor? naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth Remember the mice would healing article at the beginning of the year? What did VEGF do? (grape-seed article) Create blood vessels if at an injury site

32 13. MATCHING 1 Cells divide A. anchorage until reach a definite dependence limit (other cells, walls) 2 cells need contact B. cancer cells to grow 3 cells continue to grow C. density- Uncontrollably dependent inhibition

33 13. MATCHING ANSWERS 1-C Cells divide A. anchorage until reach a definite dependence limit (other cells, walls) 2-A cells need contact B. cancer cells to grow 3-B cells continue to grow C. density- Uncontrollably dependent inhibition

34 14. MATCH THE CANCERS A. carcinoma B. sarcoma C. lymphoma D. leukemia E. metastasis 1. spread of cancer cells beyond site 2. cancer from bone marrow 3. cancer from outer skin or linings 4. support tissue cancers (bone, muscle) 5. cancer of lymphatic system

35 14. MATCH THE CANCERS 3 A. carcinoma 4 B. sarcoma 5 C. lymphoma 2 D. leukemia 1 E. metastasis 1. spread of cancer cells beyond site 2. cancer from bone marrow (makes WBC) 3. cancer from outer skin or linings 4. support tissue cancers (bone, muscle) 5. cancer of lymphatic system

36 14. MATCH THE CANCERS A.Benign B.Malignant C.tumor 1. tumor growth spread to other tissue 2. abnormal growth but not beyond original site 3. abnormal growth of cells

37 14. MATCH THE CANCERS A.2 Benign B.1 Malignant C.3 tumor 1. tumor growth spread to other tissue 2. abnormal growth but not beyond original site 3. abnormal growth of cells

38 15. What is the name of the gene that... Gene that causes breast cancer P27 (on chromosome 12 FYI) Spellchecks DNA for errors and repairs them? p53

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41 17. What is the name of… The protein that signals each phase of the cell cycle to start? Cyclins (build up and break down)

42 How do cyclins and cdk’s work together? Cdk is an enzyme that attaches to cyclin to form MPF (maturation promotion factor) to begin that part of the cell Cycle Phosphate group activates with energy

43 18. How are cancer cells... Abnormal in the cell cycle?

44 ANSWER Do not have a properly functioning cell cycle control system- grow uncontrollably

45 18. What body cells... Divide a lot? Not at all after formed?

46 18. What cells… Divide a lot skin blood digestive tract Don’t divide after formed Nerve (brain) muscle

47 18. What part of the cell cycle… Is when cells that do not divide leave the cell cycle or go to differentiate? G 0

48 19. Name the Phase of Mitosis Chromatin thickens nuclear envelope disappears nuclear envelope reforms Prophase prometaphase telophase

49 19. Name the Phase of Mitosis Centrioles moving to the opposite poles spindle fibers form cell plate forms Prophase prophase Telophase/ cytokinesis

50 19. Name the Phase of Mitosis Chromosomes line up at the equator cytoplasm divides Metaphase cytokinesis

51 Identify the Phase of Mitosis anaphase

52 Identify the Phase of Mitosis prophase

53 Identify the Phase of Mitosis telophase

54 Identify the Phase of cell cycle Interphase

55 Identify the Phase of Mitosis prometaphase

56 Identify the Phase of Mitosis Metaphase

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61 If given the diploid number, what is the haploid number? Diploid Haploid

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73 #29 What are gametes? A. autosomes B. female chromosomes C. sex cells D. daughter cells ANSWER: Gametes are sex cells. For Human they are sperm (male) and egg (female)

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75 30. What phase of meiosis?

76 A1 A2 P1 M1M2 P2 4 daughter cells

77 30. What phase of meiosis?

78 A-I B. P1 early C.P1 late D. M1 E. F. A1 G. T1 H. Interkinesis I. P2 J. M2 K. A2 L. T2 M.4 daughter cells

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84 32. What 3 factors increase genetic variability after meiosis? 1. independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase I (which chromosome lined up on each side) 2. random fertilization (which sperm joined which egg) 3. crossing over (ALSO MUTATION…coming in next unit)

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