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Chapter 13 Section 3 A Nation Divided

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1 Chapter 13 Section 3 A Nation Divided
Background: During the 1920’s 800,000 African Americans had moved North for better lives- pay and less discrimination. This created large communities in northern cities- around 2.5 Million total Negatives Economic recessions hurt them badly- 1st laid off Riots and violence there were 25 race riots died in Tulsa, OK KKK came back with a vengeance down south, midwest and in the north

2 KKK Rise and Fall William Joseph Simmons re-established the Klan in 1915 at Stone Mountain, Georgia Klan targets were not only African Americans but Catholics, Jewish people, immigrants and radicals The Red Scare boosted membership to a high of 4 to 5 million Decreased Red Scare hysteria, bad publicity, corruption and the conviction of David Stephenson for 2nd degree murder cut the Klan’s numbers down to 9,000 by 1930

3 Random Marcus Garvey Information
Marcus Garvey had a profound effect on the black movement in his time and in the future. He was one of the first to use the term black pride and black is beautiful and he sold stock in the Black Star Steamship Company. He was very popular with the lower and middle class blacks. Many African Americans like WEB DuBois agreed with some of his program but felt that African Americans should fight for their rights in the US.

4 African Americans Defend Their Rights
NAACP was formed to end lynching through legislation and pressure on local police to investigate A. Philip Randolph formed the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters to raise wages, working conditions and better hours Marcus Garvey tried to establish a Pan-Africanism movement to unite all black people in the world in their common cause. Marcus was also at the forefront of the black nationalism movement to create a homeland in Africa. Furthermore Marcus founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association which had two goals: economic independence through black owned businesses and an independent black home land in Africa

5 Immigration Restrictions
Many Americans felt that the US was being overrun by immigrants. This was one reason for the Klan’s increased membership. Nativism- believe that people from other countries were harmful to our country- was on the rise and the politicians enacted laws to keep the “wrong” kind of people from being able to immigrate Immigration Laws 1921: Immigration was limited to 3% of who was here in 1910 The Immigration Act of 1924: Reduced the quota to 2% of who was here in excluded all Asian immigrants 1925: New immigrants from Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe was limited to 153,000

6 Mexican American Migration
Mexican Americans were exempt from the immigration legislation. Employers in the Southwest were happy to have a ready supply of low wage laborers Mexican Americans were eager to come work in the US to escape poverty, job scarcity and political upheaval- 500,000 Often times the work conditions were horrible Mexican Americans began to move to cities and this caused social conflict because many of the children began to assimilate into anglo culture

7 American Indian Life Native Americans were trying to overcome the disastrous effects of the Dawes Act which broke up reservations 1922: Pueblo tribes (SW) successfully organized to fight the Bursum Bill that was an attempt to legalize non-Indian claims to Pueblo land. Solid support came from Women’s groups and anthropoligists 1924: Congress granted citizenship to all American Indians- partly in recognition to their service in WW1 Widespread poverty still remained a problem

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