2Ku Klux KlanAmerica's oldest, most visible, and most infamous hate groupWhite supremacy and anti-immigrationHostile towards Jews, Muslims, Immigrants to America, Asians, Homosexuals, Catholics,
3End of 1st, Beginning of 2nd Becoming disorganizedStarted to be seen as the true criminalsBeing suppressed by other groupsCeased to exist for decades until William J. Simmons began a recreation with only 2 returning members of the original Klan
4Events Leading to Rebirth The film Birth of a NationLeo Frank’s 1913William J. Simmons at Stone Mountain
5Birth of a Nation Directed by D. W. Griffith Based on the book and play, The Clansmen by Thomas Dixon Jr.Glorified the original Klan and began a new Klan crazeMuch of the Ku Klux Klan’s iconography are derived from the filmInfluence and popularity were enhanced by a widely reported endorsement by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.
7Leo Frank Jewish man Convicted of the rape and murder of Mary Phagan After a 25 day trial, Frank was found guiltyNorthern factory owners exploiting southernersKnights of Mary PhaganLynched
8William J. Simmons Official founder of 2nd Klan Wrote his own prospectus for a reincarnation of the organizationInvolved with lynching of Leo Frank and Stone MountainOrganized 15 men to burn a cross on Stone Mountain on Thanksgiving of 1915Declared himself the Imperial Wizard of the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan
9Stone Mountain, Georgia Setting of the 1915 revivalHooded mob bet November 25, 1915A cross was lit, and the oath was administered by Nathan Bedford Forrest IIWitnessed by the owner of Stone Mountain, Samuel Venable, who granted the Klan rights"let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!" –Martin Luther King Jr.Klan was able to influence the ideology of the carving
13Symbols and Activities Burning of the cross: a symbol of intimidationCostume: “Glory Suit” regaliaSymbol on the robe: red circle with a cross and a blood drop in the middleViolence was not uncommonLynching: illegal execution of an accused person by a mobSoutherners felt threatened after the Civil warWanted to Maintain white supremacyEstimated that between 1880 and 1920, an average of two African Americans a week were lynched in the United States.
15Political Influence Spread from South to Midwest and Northern States Turned Anaheim, California into model Klan StatePlayed a significant role at the 1924 Democratic National ConventionWorked for political and social reformMembers served in state legislatures and Congress, and were elected to the governorship in several states.
17Fall and ResistanceThe scandal surrounding the murder trial of D.C. Stephenson destroyed its imageBy 1926 the Klan had weakenedMany groups began speaking out against the KlanAttacked and referred to as violent and "un-American“
19After the 2nd Klan“Ku Klux Klan” used by many independent local groups opposing the Civil Rights Movement and desegregationSeveral members of KKK groups were convicted of murder in the deaths of civil rights workersIndividual Klan groups in Birmingham, Alabama began to resist social change and blacks' improving their lives by bombing houses in transitional neighborhoods."Bombingham"Current Klans across the nation hold about 5,000 members