4Human Rights Problems in the 1990s Prison conditionsViolence against womenMistreatment of “dark-skinned” migrantsHazing in the Armed ForcesChechnya
5Key Human Rights Organizations MemorialSoldiers’ MothersGlasnost FoundationHuman Rights Ombudsman – Sergei KovalovMoscow Helsinki GroupThousands of others
6What do we mean by human rights? First Generation Rights – civil and political rightsElectoralismSecond Generation Rights – economic and social rightsInter-personal violence?
7Economic Collapse,- Economy contracted by as much as forty percent - Tens of millions thrown into poverty - Mass privatization – “loans for shares” - Endemic corruption - Decline in life expectancy - Rosefielde: “three million excess deaths”
8The Oligarchs Boris Berezovsky Mikhail Friedman Vladimir Gusinsky Mikhail KhodorkovskyVladimir PotaninAlexander SmolenskyVladimir Vinogradov
9Illiberal Democracy competitive elections pervasive violation of rightsBreakdown of rule of lawEndemic corruptionZakaria 1997: we like Liberal Democracy because we like Liberalism and “democracy is flourishing; constitutional liberalism is not.”
11Decline of Political Competition Parliament Controlled by United RussiaPutin faces no serious challengers – wins ~80% of the vote in 2000, 2004Essentially names his successor – Dmitri MedvedevAbolishes direct elections for governors
12Terrorism in Russia Apartment Building Bombings, 1999 Nord-Ost Theater, 2002Beslan School Massacre, 2004Suicide Bombings"We'll follow terrorists everywhere….Should we catch them in a sh*t-house, we'll kill them in a sh*t-house.“"We allowed corruption to undermine our judicial and law enforcement system. We showed ourselves to be weak. And the weak get beaten."
13Crackdown on Media, Civil Society End of Independent TelevisionNew laws limiting independent organizationsArrests of potential opposition figures – Khodorkovsky, Nemtsov
14Murder of Journalists Yeltsin Era – 67 murdered (1993-1999) Putin/Medvedev era – 98 murdered ( )Dmitry Kholodov, Anna PolitkovskayaAccording to Committee to Protect Journalists, only Algeria and post-invasion Iraq were deadlier for journalists
15Russia’s Economic Revival Real Income doubledPoverty cut in halfInflation stable (was 2000% in 1992)
16According to Freedom House… There is only one region in the world where political rights and civil liberties have been in continuous decline since the wide swath of territory made up of countries of the former Soviet Union, with the exception of the Baltic states.
17Key QuestionIs Illiberal Democracy better than authoritarianism if people are materially better off in the latter?