Presentation on theme: "Texas Declares Independence While the Texians fought at the Alamo… Delegates met on March 1, 1836 at Washington-on- the-Brazos They voted unanimously to."— Presentation transcript:
Texas Declares Independence While the Texians fought at the Alamo… Delegates met on March 1, 1836 at Washington-on- the-Brazos They voted unanimously to declare Independence on March 2 nd, 1836. They based it heavily on the U.S. Declaration. Replica of building at Washington-on-the-Brazos
Texas Declaration of Independence The document: – Listed complaints against Santa Anna and Mexico – Stated Texans were denied rights contained in Constitution of 1824 – Declared Texas an independent country The Texas Declaration of Independence
Why didn’t Sam Houston save the Alamo? Houston was on his way to Washington-on-the- Brazos when he found out about the siege of the Alamo. At that time he had no soldiers to command He insisted that Texas declare independence before he left to join volunteers gathering in Gonzales. Once they did he left and arrived at Gonzales on March 11 th, too late to save the Alamo. Plus a little over 100 Texians troops were at Gonzales, far too few to fight Santa Anna’s army.
Why didn’t Fannin help the Alamo? James Fannin at Golaid tried to march his men to the Alamo on Feb 28th. But bad luck would force him to turn back. Yesterday after making all preparations possible, we took up our line of march (about three hundred strong and four pieces of artillery) toward Bexar, to the relief of those brave men now shut up on command of this post. Within two hundred yards of the town (Goliad) one of the wagons broke down,... Not a particle of bread-stuff with us, no beef with the exception of a small portion that had been dried and no cattle, except those used to pull the artillery, the ammunition, etc… This morning I received a note from the officers commanding the volunteers, and it was by them unanimously determined, that inasmuch as without proper supply and means of transportation to carry the artillery with us, and as by leaving Fort Defiance (La Bahia) without a proper garrison, it might fall into the hands of the enemy, we may expect an attack upon this place, it was deemed expedient to return to this post and complete the fortifications……. J. W. Fannin
HOUSTON to FANNIN. Head Quarters, Gonzales, March 11, 1836. To James W. Fannin Sir: upon my arrival here this afternoon, the following intelligence was received through a Mexican, supposed to be friendly. It is only given to you as a rumor, though I fear a melancholy portion of it will be found too true. He states that he left Fort San Antonio on Sunday, the 6th; that the Alamo was attacked on that morning at the dawn of day, by about 2,500 men, and was carried a short time before sunrise with a loss of 520 men. Travis had only 150 effective men, out of his whole force of 187. After the fort was carried, seven men surrendered, and called on Gen Santa Anna for mercy. They were murdered by his order. Col. Bowie was sick in his bed, and was also murdered…. The bodies of the Americans were burnt after the massacre, Lieutenant Dickinson, who had a wife and child in the fort, after having fought with desperate courage, tied his child to his back, leaped from the top of a two story building, and both were killed by the fall. I have but little doubt that the Alamo has fallen. Whether the above particulars are all true may be questionable. Sam Houston.
Fannin was in charge of 400 men but they were mostly volunteers and he could not control them. So when problems sprung up on his march to the Alamo, lack of food and his wagons breaking down, he could not keep his troops moving and let them convince him to turn around.
So Fannin turned back to Goliad to defend it. A few days later he had problems of his own. On March 2 nd he learned of the Mexican Army led by General Urrea was heading his way. Urrea was closing in on a small Texian settlement to the south of Goliad named Refugio (Re-fury-Oh)
Fannin sent 130 men to evacuate the citizens. They are either killed or captured in the “Battle of Refugio” Battle of Refugio
Houston orders Fannin to leave Goliad Houston did not want Fannin’s troops killed in another Alamo type battle so he ordered Fannin to join him in Victoria. ARMY ORDER Headquarters, Gonzales, March 11, 1836 To Col. J. W. Fannin, Commanding at Goliad Sir: You will as soon as practicable on receipt of this order, fall back upon Guadalupe Victoria with your command and such artillery as can be brought with expedition. The remainder will be sunk in the river. You will take the necessary measures for the defense of Victoria, and forward one- third of your effective men to this point, and remain in command until further orders. Every facility is to be afforded to women and children who may be desirous of leaving that place. Previous to abandoning Goliad, you will take the necessary measures to blow up that fortress, and do so before leaving its vicinity. The immediate advance of the enemy may be constantly expected, as well as a rise of water. Prompt movements are therefore highly important. SAM HOUSTON Commander of the Army
Fannin took his time leaving Goliad and by the time he did leave on March 19 th, 8 days after being told to do so, the Mexican cavalry was already near by with the rest of the Mexican army closing in. Fannin also ignored Houston’s orders to leave or get rid of his cannons and brought them with him which slowed the army tremendously.
Battle of Coleto Fannin reached a creek called Coleto but by that time the Mexican cavalry had closed in on them. Fannin formed his men up in a giant square and prepared for a fight.
The battle of Coleto lasted until after sunset on March 19. The Texans fought off the Mexicans using their bayonets, muskets, and nine cannons and their square remained unbroken. The Texians lost seven men and sixty wounded (forty severely), Fannin among them.
After the sunset the fighting stopped but the Texians were still surrounded. They had no water and to make matters worse the wounded could not be treated because if they lit a fire the Mexicans would shoot at them.
In the morning the Mexicans had the Texians surrounded with cannons. After a few shots into the Texians lines, Fannin realized that he had to surrender. Surrender of the Texians
The Texians surrendered and Urrea and the Mexican army marched them back to Goliad
The Texians were held for a week. To URREA. 26 Mar 1836. From the Commandant at Goliad to General Urrea. In compliance with the definitive orders of his Excellency the general-in-chief, which I received direct, at four o'clock tomorrow morning the prisoners sent by you to this fortress will be shot.
The Goliad Massacre On March 27 th the Texians were marched out of Goliad in three large groups and shot. At selected spots on each of the three roads…the three groups were halted. The guard on the right of the column of prisoners then countermarched and formed with the guard on the left. At a prearranged moment, or upon a given signal, the guards fired upon the prisoners at a range too close to miss. Nearly all were killed at the first fire. Those not killed were pursued and slaughtered by gunfire or bayonet. Fannin and some forty (another estimated eighty or ninety) wounded Texians unable to march were put to death within the presidio …
342 of the Texians were executed at Goliad on March 27, 1836. Only twenty-eight escaped the firing squads, and twenty more were spared by Francisca Alavez, the wife of a Mexican army officer who thought the executions were wrong. She convinced her husband to spare the Texians and became known as the “Angel of Goliad.”