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WOMEN IN POLITICS OVERVIEW WOMEN IN POLITICS OVERVIEW Gender, Women and Politics The National Democratic Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "WOMEN IN POLITICS OVERVIEW WOMEN IN POLITICS OVERVIEW Gender, Women and Politics The National Democratic Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 WOMEN IN POLITICS OVERVIEW WOMEN IN POLITICS OVERVIEW Gender, Women and Politics The National Democratic Institute

2 INTRODUCTIONS/ GROUND RULES Introductions Ground Rules Ice Breaker Exercise

3 WOMEN IN POLITICS OVERVIEW OBJECTIVES Understand the need for women’s political participation and the related legal framework within global, regional and country-specific contexts Photo: AFP/Getty Images

4 WOMEN IN POLITICS TOPICS Women’s political participation: history and trends Benefits Obstacles Minimum conditions International/regional/national frameworks Impact of women's participation Resources

5 KEY TERMS Empowerment Gender equality Critical mass Quota First past the post (FPTP) Proportional representation (PR) Transparency Caucus Photo: Katie Croake, NDI

6 OVERALL GLOBAL TRENDS Reaching parity in primary education but… 2/3 of illiterate adults are women Women’s wages are 70-90% those of men Women spend at least twice as much time as men on domestic work

7 OVERALL GLOBAL TRENDS Rates of physical violence vary from several percent to over 59% Gender digital divide Women more likely to live in poverty

8 EXERCISE Women in Politics Quiz Photo:

9 HISTORY OF WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Right to stand for election US (1788) Right to vote New Zealand (1893) First parliamentarians Finland (1907) First head of state Mongolia (1953)

10 WOMEN IN POLITICS: GLOBAL TRENDS Women in parliament: 20.3% Rwanda: 56.3% 33 parliamentary lower chambers with 30% or more women Presiding officers: 15.1% 7 countries: no women 16.7% of ministerial posts 17 heads of government Photo: Mark Wilson, Getty Images

11 REGIONAL TRENDS Rank Lower Upper Kosovo % Macedonia % Serbia56 22% Bulgaria % Slovakia80 16% Romania % 5.9%

12 REGIONAL QUOTAS Country Quota System Kosovo 30%-N Open PR, every 3rd Macedonia 30%-N,L Closed PR, every 3rd Serbia 30%-N, L PR, every 4th Bulgaria FPTP/PR Slovakia PR Romania MMP

13 LOCAL TRENDS 1935: women’s political rights recognized Advances in parliament: from 9% to 14% 1 parliamentary committee chair 1 of 26 ministries headed by a woman Men hold 82% of executive positions

14 EXERCISE Brainstorm: Why women? Photo: NDI

15 WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION: BENEFITS Higher standards of living Concerns of marginalized voters represented Collaborative leadership styles Work across party lines Peace building Better decisions

16 BENEFITS “Success without democracy is improbable. Democracy without women is impossible.” “The political participation of women results in tangible gains for democracy, including greater responsiveness to citizen needs, increased cooperation across party and ethnic lines, and more sustainable peace.” - Madeleine K. Albright

17 WOMEN IN POLITICS: VOTERS Fundamental right Barriers Voter and civic education When women vote, women win Photo: NDI

18 WOMEN IN POLITICAL PARTIES Importance of women as party members and leaders Benefits to the party Women’s wings Photo: Amy Hamelin, NDI

19 WOMEN IN CIVIL SOCIETY Women as agents of change Photo: NDI

20 EXERCISE Women’s political participation: identifying helping and hindering forces Image: Inter-parliamentary Union

21 OBSTACLES TO WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Structural – Legal – Economic – Educational Social/cultural/religious Time and space Physical security Lack of confidence

22 MINIMUM CONDITIONS FOR POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Access to positions of power Transparency Changing cultural norms Women’s economic empowerment Political will Photo: Amy Hamelin, NDI

23 MINIMUM CONDITIONS Voice – Empowerment – Critical mass Access – Representative resources – Material and economic resources – Democratic/cultural space – Information – gender-disaggregated Capacity

24 GOALS We want MORE: (informed) women voters women party leaders elected women at all levels effective women leaders inclusive party platforms inclusive public policy Photo: Washington Post

25 GLOBAL FRAMEWORKS CEDAW (1979) – International bill of rights for women – Defines discrimination – States commit to end discrimination Beijing Platform for Action (1995) – Agenda for women's empowerment – Aims to remove obstacles to women's active participation

26 GLOBAL FRAMEWORKS Millennium Development Goals (2001) – promote gender equality and empower women UN Security Council Resolutions – 1325: Women’s participation in peace negotiations and reconstruction – Subsequent Resolutions: 1820,1888, 1889 and 1960

27 REGIONAL AND NATIONAL FRAMEWORKS Regional – Southern African Development Community Protocol on Gender and Development (2008) – African Union Protocol on the Rights of Women (2003) National – National Policy Framework for Women’s Empowerment and Gender Equality

28 DONOR POLICIES US Agency for International Development (USAID) SIDA, CIDA, DIFD European Union World Bank

29 MOBILIZING WOMEN FOR CHANGE: MECHANISMS Women’s parliamentary caucuses Women’s wings within political parties Civil society organizations Cross-sector groups Photo: NDI

30 WOMEN WORKING TOGETHER Albania: Equality in Decision Making o Multi-partisan network o Awareness raising campaign on domestic violence o Lobbying campaign on women’s economic empowerment Photo: NDI

31 Burkina Faso: CEDAW Coalition o 17 women’s NGOs o First CEDAW shadow report produced by coalition WOMEN WORKING TOGETHER Photo: NDI

32 Iraq National Women’s Platform o Multi-partisan and multi-sector o Identified critical issues and policy solutions o Used platform to coordinate advocacy and legislative initiatives WOMEN WORKING TOGETHER

33 Macedonia: Women’s Parliamentary Club o Advocated for establishment of quota o Lobbied for adoption of Protocol on Human Trafficking o Proposed amendment on funding for domestic violence WOMEN WORKING TOGETHER

34 NDI RESOURCES iKNOW Politics: Win with Women Global Action Plan Political Party Assessment Tool Empowering Women for Stronger Political Parties Democracy and the Challenge of Change

35 WOMEN AND POLITICS REVIEW Women’s participation  Recent development  Numbers growing but not quickly Brings benefits Faces obstacles International/regional/national frameworks Women working together make a difference


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