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Katherine Levesque University of New Hampshire IA 701.

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Presentation on theme: "Katherine Levesque University of New Hampshire IA 701."— Presentation transcript:

1 Katherine Levesque University of New Hampshire IA 701

2 Research Question Why do women living in African nations contract HIV/AIDS at more than twice the rate that men do? Why do women living in African nations contract HIV/AIDS at more than twice the rate that men do?

3 HIV/AIDS in Numbers 33.3 million cases of HIV/AIDS worldwide 33.3 million cases of HIV/AIDS worldwide – 22.5 million in sub-Saharan Africa 58% in women 58% in women Women (aged 15-24)  >4x as likely Women (aged 15-24)  >4x as likely

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5 Increased Vulnerability of Women Biological Factors Sociocultural Factors Socioeconomic Factors

6 Biological Factors Sociocultural Factors Socioeconomic Factors

7 Sociocultural Culture of silence Marriage Virgin Worship Men’s Pleasure Polygamy Female Genital Mutilation Circumcision Ceremonies Dry vs. Wet Sex Myths & Misconceptions Socioeconomic ColonizationPoor EconomyNo EducationFewer Marketable Skills Commercial Sex Work

8 Culture of Silence Taboo Taboo Definition of a “good” woman Definition of a “good” woman Lies, silence, beating, parables Lies, silence, beating, parables Sexual health not taught in schools Sexual health not taught in schools

9 Marriage as a Risk Factor Arranged marriages Arranged marriages Intergenerational unions Intergenerational unions Early sexual debut Early sexual debut

10 Virgin Worship Unmarried women must be virgins Unmarried women must be virgins Virgin cure Virgin cure Erotic imagery of innocence/passivity Erotic imagery of innocence/passivity Breaking/tearing virginity is highly valued Breaking/tearing virginity is highly valued

11 Sociocultural Culture of silence Marriage Virgin Worship Men’s Pleasure Polygamy Female Genital Mutilation Circumcision Ceremonies Dry vs. Wet Sex Myths & Misconceptions Socioeconomic ColonizationPoor EconomyNo EducationFewer Marketable Skills Commercial Sex Work

12 Economic Vulnerability Economic dependency Economic dependency Less education Less education Few marketable skills Few marketable skills Commercial sex work Commercial sex work Sugar daddies Sugar daddies

13 Connections All of these factors are either created by or exacerbated by gender inequality All of these factors are either created by or exacerbated by gender inequality – Deepening economic crisis & increased gender conflict – Poverty aggravates high-risk behaviors They are inextricably intertwined They are inextricably intertwined

14 Implications Initiatives and campaigns against HIV/AIDS Initiatives and campaigns against HIV/AIDS – not effectively decrease the rate at which women contract HIV/AIDS Unless accompanied by programs that liberate women Unless accompanied by programs that liberate women


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