Presentation on theme: "Gender Violence Resisting the status quo socio-cultural/socio-political, domestic & Sexual violence."— Presentation transcript:
Gender Violence Resisting the status quo socio-cultural/socio-political, domestic & Sexual violence
Violence Against Women any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. United Nations General Assembly
Gendered Violence Violence against women must be understood in context of socially constructed notions of gender Male violence is related to power and patriarchal dominance Female victimization is related to women’s place in society; her social, economic, and political power
Socio-Political Violence Occupational Health & Women’s Work –Blue Collar Toxic environment, hazardous equipment –White Collar Income & benefit disparities –Pink Collar Sexual Harassment Corporate Violence –Toxic & hazardous products
Domestic Violence Public issue, not private matter Leading cause of injury for women between 15 & 44 Often connected to pregnancy, child-rearing, or “outside obligations” “Equal opportunity” health risk Includes murder, mutilation, rape, battering, emotional abuse, psychological torture Is itself a significant risk factor for depression, PTSD, GAD, substance abuse & suicide
Cycle of Violence Tension Building Phase – Rise in batter’s anger, walking on egg shells. Explosion Phase - Verbal attacks increase. A violent outburst occurs. Remorse Phase – Fear of getting caught and reprisal: “You shouldn't have pushed me, it was your fault!” Pursuit/Honeymoon Phase - “See, we don't have any problems!” Flowers, gifts, etc.
Who Batters? Men European Americans Pre-occupation with masculine behaviors Totalitarian, dogmatic thinkers “gay-bashers” –young –Homo-erotic tendencies –Low educational attainment
Domestic Violence as a Public Health Epidemic Private versus public sphere issue Institutional support –Churches & social service agencies –Social science research –Law enforcement –Health care settings
Sexual Violence Rape Spectrum—continuum of sexist behaviors that have end result of harming women. Use of spectrum allows us to make connections between institutions, behaviors and ideologies Media The sex industry Blaming the victim
Female Genital Mutilation Prevalence –Africa & Middle East –20 to 75 million in contemporary history Types Reasons –Hygiene –Prevent masturbation –Aesthetics –Myths about the clitoris –Ensure fidelity
Women, HIV & AIDS A Form of Sexual Violence Against Women Current Rates Problems unique to women Inequalities in: –Treatment –Prevention –Research
HIV/AIDS Current Numbers As of 2002, 50% of HIV+ people worldwide are women Heterosexual transmission main cause of new infection Women more at risk because of sexual double standards and lack of female sexual agency
How Serious Is AIDS for Women?
Race/ethnicity of women given a diagnosis of AIDS, 2003
Transmission categories of African American Women, 2003 Based on data from 32 states with confidential name-based HIV reporting. Source. MMWR 2004; 53:1106-1110.
HIV & African American Women African-American women had a 23 times greater diagnoses rate than white women AIDS is leading cause of death for African American women ages 24-36 Safe sex efforts to help curb the spread of AIDS are often rejected by African American community leaders because these efforts are seen as “sexually suggestive or culturally inappropriate”
Latinas HIV infection rate among Latinas is seven times higher than for white women Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of STIs among women of color would be effective if they are culturally relevant
Women’s Increased Vulnerability to HIV Biologically Economically Socially and culturally
Biological Vulnerability During sex, HIV is transmitted from men to women much more easily than from women to men Viral loads are lower in women Gynecological problems can be early signs of HIV infection Mothers can pass HIV infection to their babies Women get more and different side effects than men
Economic Vulnerability 1 in 5 HIV+ women is uninsured –Women do not access health care at same rate as men 50% of HIV+ women have at least one child under age 15 –Many women are single parents Most effective preventive measures are male-controlled –Condoms –Drug kits
Socio-cultural Vulnerability Early 1990s, two research projects started to study women and HIV –The Women's Interagency HIV Study –The Women and Infants Transmission Studies (WITS) 1997 women not allowed in clinical trials just because they might become pregnant Most medications have never been specifically tested in women
Prevention Needs of Women Equalize gender relations –Employment –Sexual Rights/Sexual Agency See HIV/AIDS in life context –Address intersection of IV & sexual transmission Develop and widely disseminate effective female-controlled prevention methods –Microbicides –Vaccines Better services for women’s general health –Treatment and prevention of sexually transmissible infection –Comprehensive health insurance –Increase emphasis on prevention & treatment for young women & women of color