Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: The Making of Males and Females in Contemporary Kisii Initiation as Rite of Passage Female Rites Male Rites Differences between male/female."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3: The Making of Males and Females in Contemporary Kisii Initiation as Rite of Passage Female Rites Male Rites Differences between male/female initiation
Initiation as Rite of Passage Gender is acquired through the process of socialization and psychological events that begin at childhood and last well into adulthood. Initiation rites among the Kisii help form social/sexual identity—in a sense “carving” gender through female/male genital mutilation at adolescence. Females/Males are not considered full member of a society unless they have undergone these rituals (i.e.circumcision). All social and moral life is gendered. International Reactions: Horror at female circumcision. In 1980 female circumcision is banned. No outcry against male circumcision.
Female Initiation The old woman circumciser in action with a razor blade. Maize flower is put on the wound to stop the bleeding. Girls waiting in a line for their turn to be circumcised.
Female Initiation d Girl resting in the hut after the circumcision. Women celebrating their daughters circumcision, swinging their pangas, lifting their skirts and singing vulgar songs.
Clitoridectomy Reasoning: To eliminate the sexual excitability of women; this makes women more controllable and prevents “loose” behavior. By removing the clitoris, a masculine feature, women become more feminine. Economic basis—allows fathers to negotiate marriage. No uncircumcised girl will find a husband and the father would not receive a bride price. Results: Health issues. With the banning of female circumcision, more “at home” procedures are occurring leading to medical complications. Men look to prostitutes for recreational sex. Parents become senior village members with a corresponding increase in their status, just as the girls become women.
Circumsion Reasoning: To introduce boys to their adult responsibilities, and sex. During this time boys learn that they must be providers and control their wives and families. By giving individuals the opportunity to stand up to pain and ridicule. Stoicism shows “real” manhood. To stimulate the formation of bonds between boys of the same age grade. This is a “terrifying but also exciting” experience. Results: Boys may now have sex with older circumcised girls and often threaten girls with rape as they court them. No longer must treat initiated girls with respect Parents become senior village members with a corresponding increase in their status, just as the men become boys.
Difference in Female/Male Initiations FEMALE At ceremony, girl is accompanied by mother is restrained Ceremony focuses on sexual stimulation Girls are taught obedience Fewer responsibilities are acquired during ceremony Ceremony provides an emotional/sexual outlet for mother’s/women’s aggression. MALE Boy is secluded before ceremony and must stand alone Ceremony focuses on sexual avoidance. Boys are taught self-reliance through adventures games in theft and hunting Greater number of responsibilities imparted Ceremony does not provide an emotional outlet for fathers