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Gender and HIV Dr. Katie Thomas Centre for International Health Curtin University of Technology Dr. Katie Thomas Centre for International Health Curtin.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender and HIV Dr. Katie Thomas Centre for International Health Curtin University of Technology Dr. Katie Thomas Centre for International Health Curtin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender and HIV Dr. Katie Thomas Centre for International Health Curtin University of Technology Dr. Katie Thomas Centre for International Health Curtin University of Technology

2 THE GLOBAL PICTURE: Young women are 1.6 times more likely to be living with HIV/AIDS than young men. (International Women’s Development Agency) Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

3 Sub Suharan Africa: girls make up over 75% of HIV Infections in the youngest age groups of infection particularly Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

4 In significant portions of East & South Africa more than 1/3 all teen girls are already infected with HIV. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

5 The Global Picture Half of young women in high-prevalence countries do not know the basic facts about HIV/AIDS (or sex) ARVs available only to the wealthy bec of US global patents. 99% of pregnant women in heavily affected countries are offered no services to prevent mother-to-infant transmission. Amfar, Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

6 HIV & Poverty Two thirds of the world’s 900 million illiterate adults are women. 70% of the 1.1 billion people living in absolute poverty are women. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

7 Poverty and Exploitation Nepal “Annually approximately 20% of all girls under 16 are trafficked into India for prostitution.” (amfAR AIDS Research, 2005) Trafficking, labour markets & forced labour. The majority of females trafficked across borders in SE Asia come from indigenous (poor) communities. (Ifad, 2005) Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

8 Poverty & Racism & HIV:In the United States AIDS is the leading cause of death of African-American women in the age bracket

9 “For many women in many parts of the world, being poor, young & married are the most significant risk factors for acquiring HIV Infection.” (Rosenberg, 2004) Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

10 Women more than twice as likely to contract HIV from men than vice versa due to the physiology of the female genital tract. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

11 ABCs & the Married Woman Thailand – 75% of HIV infected women have been infected by their husbands. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

12 In Zambia & Kenya, young married women are at higher risk of HIV infection than unmarried sexually active women in the same age group. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

13 “A sex worker can tell a client to use a condom but when it comes to family, an ordinary Indian woman must oblige her husband’s wishes.” Dr. Suniti Solomon, Founding Director YRG Centre for AIDS Research, Chennai, India, Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

14 In the US - HIV is most often transmitted to women during heterosexual sex (70%) & during childbearing years. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

15 Rwanda 1994 – Of the women who were raped & are still alive, 70% are HIV infected. Amnesty International, 2004 Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

16 The Global Picture: Female Vulnerability to Violence and Rape Natural disasters and armed conflict – widespread sexual violence against women and girls. amfAR, AIDS Research 2005 Darfur Jan-May05 ‘MSF teams treated 500 people for violence related injuries “& 278 women for rape”.’ MSF Darfur Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

17 Gender Based Violence (GBV) Violence against women is a greater cause of ill health than traffic accidents and malaria combined. (International Women’s Development Agency, 2005) Emerging evidence connects the rapidly expanding HIV epidemic and Gender Based Violence (GBV) partic among young women. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

18 Summary:Female Risk Factors Biological Susceptibility Economic Instability Gender Inequality Violence Lack of integrated prevention & treatment services The re-emergence of Church & State (Bush’s ABCs). The impact of having leaders who cherish fundamentalist beliefs of misogyny in power in many western & non-western nations. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

19  Why ’ s HIV highest in Southern Africa, intermediate in Eastern Africa and lowest in West Africa?  Major reason - male circumcision - lowest in Southern Africa, intermediate in Eastern Africa and highest in West Africa Dr. David Wilson, Worldbank

20 Dr. David Wilson, Worldbank.

21 MONITORING SOCIAL INDICATORS Developing countries Female pay Female work hours – access to water, basic facilities Gender ratios in education Levels of Domestic Violence Incidence & prevalence of unwanted intercourse (not just rape) Age diff betw male & female at first int. Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

22 Questions for Psychology Why isn’t Bush funding circumcision and targetting gender inequity and sexual predation/objectification of women in the fight against HIV? Why is there no mention of gender and inequality between men and women in global AIDS talk? Why instead is global funding actively preventing female access to family planning, education and methods that would lead to higher female control over their own sexuality and reproductive capacity? Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

23 How evident is advocacy for social justice within the discipline when it relates to gender equity? Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

24 Where is gender inequity profiled as a core priority and commitment for the APS in our public profile? How are we moving to Global social justice? (MDGs?) Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

25 Why isn’t Psychology at the forefront of asking these questions? Why isn’t this a core priority for our discipline? Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

26 Who are the well paid and feted within the discipline? Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

27 Is Psychology challenging gender inequity or reproducing the ‘Old Boys Club’? Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

28 If so...what are the next steps? “And if the sky is filled with clouds, the clouds are water like the river, so without remorse reflect them too in the calm deep.” “And if the sky is filled with clouds, the clouds are water like the river, so without remorse reflect them too in the calm deep.”

29 "Hope has two beautiful daughters Their names are anger and courage; anger at the way things are, and courage to see that they do not remain the way they are." Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006

30 The End Dialogue beginning…… Dr. Katie Thomas, Women In Psychology, 2006


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