Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 The Early Greeks"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8 The Early Greeks Lesson 3 Greek City-States
2 ObjectivesExplain the relationship between Greece’s geography and the development of Greek city- statesTrace the development of early forms of democracy and citizenship
3 Vocabulary Polis – city state Acropolis – fort at the bottom of a hill Agora – political center for each city-stateOligarchy – rule by a fewTyrant – someone who took control of a government by force and ruled aloneDemocracy – rule by the peopleCommerce – large scale tradeColony – independent city-state tied to the homeland through religion and trade
5 Rise of City-StatesBy 750 BC, large settlements had grown into independent city-states such as Sparta, Athens, Argos and CorinthMountains and seas separated the city-states, causing them to develop independentlyThe English word “politics” comes from “polis”In a polis all free people were citizensThe city-states developed in similar ways, most starting at the base of an acropolis
6 The Rise of City- States Natural barriers kept the city-states from uniting and led to their growing independently of each other
7 New Ways of GoverningAs city-states developed, oligarchies replaced the rule of kingsThen tyrants took over many city-statesBy 500 BC early forms of democracy were beginning to replace tyrants in some city-statesWhat caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government?
8 Quick QuestionWhat caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government?Tyrants began to rule badly and the people overthrew them
9 What was Greek society like under an oligarchy? Members of the oligarchy controlled most aspects of Greek societyHowever, they did nothing to improve life for the poor
10 Commerce and ColoniesBy about 700 BC, the Greeks had become part of a growing commerce around the Mediterranean and beyondAs populations expanded, the city-states began to colonize areas beyond the AegeanTrade among city-states: grain, wine, olive oil, wood, pottery, and metal such as iron and toolsThe population began to rise leading to more competition for farmlandBy 500 BC Greeks founded colonies in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and Asia Minor (see map 291)
11 Quick QuestionWhat economic and political advantages did colonization bring the Greeks?
12 AnswerWhat caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government?The economic advantages included new lands, resources, and expanded trade.The political advantages included the spread of Greek power.
13 Greek CultureWhile the ancient Greeks identified with their own city- states, they also felt a strong connection with all Greeks due to their common language and shared cultureDeveloped alphabet; first letter is alpha, second is beta “Alphabet”Greeks used writing to keep records of business, trade, laws and taxesThey wrote down their history and beliefs tooWrote down Homer’s epics the Iliad and the Odyssey
14 Greek CultureWriting helped preserve their culture for later generationsFrom the heroes of the Trojan War is where the Greeks learned their strong codes of honor and courage
15 Homer and HesiodMuch of what later Greeks learned about their religion came from Homer and HesiodTheir writings taught Greeks about gods and their names, appearance, special skills and how to honor them
16 OlympicsTo honor the god Zeus, Greeks competed in athletic festivals beginning 776 B.C.Competed every 4 years became known as Olympic GamesAthletes from all city-states came to competeEvents included: wrestling, long jumping, discus, javelin throwing, boxing and runningWinners were crowned with wreathes of olive leaves and were treated as heroes in their city-states
17 Fun Fact Olympic games were a uniting force for the Greek city-states Even when city-states were at war with each other, they laid down their weapons to compete in the games!
18 A New Kind of WarfareGreek city-states often fought over land and resourcesEach city-state had a large, highly organized army composed of adult male citizens who were trained to fight in new formationsA man’s wealth and status determined his rankWealthiest men were the leaders
19 Hoplite Warfare Turn to page 294 in in textbook Describe the special formation in which the hoplite soldiers fought.Why might it have been difficult to defeat an army of hoplites?
20 Hoplite WarfareDescribe the special formation in which the hoplite soldiers fought.The hoplite soldiers fought in a rectangular formation. They marched in long rows, fighting shoulder to shoulder with their shields nearly touchingWhy might it have been difficult to defeat an army of hoplites?They marched forward like a thick, moving wall. They were very organized and equipped
21 Summary Mountains separated the independent Greek city-states City-states were active in commerce and developed new forms of warfare and government, including democracyAcross the city-states, the Greeks shared a strong cultural connection with one another