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Chapter 8 The Early Greeks Lesson 3 Greek City-States.

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1 Chapter 8 The Early Greeks Lesson 3 Greek City-States

2 Objectives Explain the relationship between Greece’s geography and the development of Greek city- states Trace the development of early forms of democracy and citizenship

3 Vocabulary Polis – city state Acropolis – fort at the bottom of a hill Agora – political center for each city-state Oligarchy – rule by a few Tyrant – someone who took control of a government by force and ruled alone Democracy – rule by the people Commerce – large scale trade Colony – independent city-state tied to the homeland through religion and trade

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5 Rise of City-States By 750 BC, large settlements had grown into independent city-states such as Sparta, Athens, Argos and Corinth Mountains and seas separated the city-states, causing them to develop independently The English word “politics” comes from “polis” In a polis all free people were citizens The city-states developed in similar ways, most starting at the base of an acropolis

6 The Rise of City- States Natural barriers kept the city-states from uniting and led to their growing independently of each other

7 New Ways of Governing As city-states developed, oligarchies replaced the rule of kings Then tyrants took over many city-states By 500 BC early forms of democracy were beginning to replace tyrants in some city-states What caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government?

8 Quick Question What caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government? ▫Tyrants began to rule badly and the people overthrew them

9 What was Greek society like under an oligarchy? Members of the oligarchy controlled most aspects of Greek society However, they did nothing to improve life for the poor

10 Commerce and Colonies By about 700 BC, the Greeks had become part of a growing commerce around the Mediterranean and beyond As populations expanded, the city-states began to colonize areas beyond the Aegean Trade among city-states: grain, wine, olive oil, wood, pottery, and metal such as iron and tools The population began to rise leading to more competition for farmland By 500 BC Greeks founded colonies in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and Asia Minor (see map 291)

11 Quick Question What economic and political advantages did colonization bring the Greeks?

12 Answer What caused some tyrannies to transition, or change, into early democratic forms of government? ▫The economic advantages included new lands, resources, and expanded trade. ▫The political advantages included the spread of Greek power.

13 Greek Culture While the ancient Greeks identified with their own city- states, they also felt a strong connection with all Greeks due to their common language and shared culture Developed alphabet; first letter is alpha, second is beta  “Alphabet” Greeks used writing to keep records of business, trade, laws and taxes They wrote down their history and beliefs too Wrote down Homer’s epics the Iliad and the Odyssey

14 Greek Culture Writing helped preserve their culture for later generations From the heroes of the Trojan War is where the Greeks learned their strong codes of honor and courage

15 Homer and Hesiod Much of what later Greeks learned about their religion came from Homer and Hesiod Their writings taught Greeks about gods and their names, appearance, special skills and how to honor them

16 Olympics To honor the god Zeus, Greeks competed in athletic festivals beginning 776 B.C. Competed every 4 years became known as Olympic Games Athletes from all city-states came to compete Events included: wrestling, long jumping, discus, javelin throwing, boxing and running Winners were crowned with wreathes of olive leaves and were treated as heroes in their city-states

17 Fun Fact Olympic games were a uniting force for the Greek city-states Even when city-states were at war with each other, they laid down their weapons to compete in the games!

18 A New Kind of Warfare Greek city-states often fought over land and resources Each city-state had a large, highly organized army composed of adult male citizens who were trained to fight in new formations A man’s wealth and status determined his rank Wealthiest men were the leaders

19 Hoplite Warfare Turn to page 294 in in textbook Describe the special formation in which the hoplite soldiers fought. Why might it have been difficult to defeat an army of hoplites?

20 Hoplite Warfare Describe the special formation in which the hoplite soldiers fought. ▫The hoplite soldiers fought in a rectangular formation. They marched in long rows, fighting shoulder to shoulder with their shields nearly touching Why might it have been difficult to defeat an army of hoplites? They marched forward like a thick, moving wall. They were very organized and equipped

21 Summary Mountains separated the independent Greek city-states City-states were active in commerce and developed new forms of warfare and government, including democracy Across the city-states, the Greeks shared a strong cultural connection with one another


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