2 Center of Greek LifePolis – Greek city-state and the center of Greek lifeOur word politics comes from polisTown where people met for political, religious, and social gatheringsCommunity of people with common identity and common goalsAcropolis – fortified area at the top of a hill used for refuge and religious centerAgora – open area below the acropolis used as a market
3 City-StatesAristotle argued “We must rather regard every citizen as belonging to the state.”Great loyalty to a city-stateGreat distrust of other city-states – led to Greece downfallCreated the hoplitesHeavily armed infantry (foot) soldiers carrying a shield, short sword, and thrusting spearMarch into battle in a rectangular formation to create a wall of shield - phalanx
4 Greek Colonies Set out in search of trade and better farmland New city-states independent from originalLed to increase of tradeMainland exported pottery, wine and olive oilWestern areas exported grains and metalsBlack Sea area exported fish, timber, wheat, metals, and slaves
5 Tyranny Trade led to wealth and wealth led to tyrants Not necessarily wicked; just took power by forceMost peasants supported because it got them out of debtTyrants took power then kept it by hiring soldiers. Built markets, temples, and walls.Build support for the tyrantEventually led to democracy – government by the peopleTyrants couldn’t last but showed many people can be part of governmentAlso an oligarchy – government by a few
6 SpartaThe art of war was all the mattered – all other art was frowned upon.Needed land so they conquered neighboring Laconians then MesseniaTurned them into helots – serfs from captureCreated a military stateRigidly organized and tightly controlledAte simple meals all togetherBlack broth was a piece of pork boiled in animal blood, salt, and vinegar
7 Sparta Men v Women http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEItBM1dc9o Forced into military at age 20.Could marry but forced to live in barracks until 30Could vote at 30 and move homeMust stay in military until 60.Freedom because they stayed at home without husbandsMust stay fit to bear childrenUpheld strict Spartan values of war – taught sons to be brave.
8 Sparta government Oligarchy led by two kings Led men into battles Ephors – 5 men elected each yearIn charge of educating youth and conduct of civiliansCounsel of elders – the 2 kings and 28 male citizens over the age of 60 decided what issues would be brought to general publicClosed off from the rest of the world; did not like visitors and weren’t allowed to travel
9 AthensLargest polisAt first ruled by king but then became oligarchy of aristocratsCreated an economic crisis and eventually gave up power to Solon – who freed peasants of all debts and tried to redistribute wealth but was unsuccessfulAfter several years Cleisthenes gained power and laid the groundwork for democracy
10 Assignment Read and answer the questions about Growing up Greek When finished flip your answer sheet over and draw a line down the pageOn one ½ draw what you think life in Sparta would look like on the other ½ draw what you think life in Athens would look like.