Presentation on theme: "Higher Education Work-Related Violence This material was produced under grant number SH-17035-08-60-F-11 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration,"— Presentation transcript:
Higher Education Work-Related Violence This material was produced under grant number SH-17035-08-60-F-11 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. These materials do not necessarily reflect views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of any trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Goals Raise awareness of extent and severity of problem Learn basic elements of a prevention program
Scope of Problem Every Year: 1.7 million Americans are assaulted at work 6 million are threatened 16 million workers are harassed Source: Bureau of Justice, Workplace Violence, 1993 - 1999 National Crime Victimization Survey
Annual Rates of Assault by employer type Annual Rates of Assault by employer type National Crime Victims Survey, US DOJ 2001 Employer typeRate/10 00 Overall12.5 Private company9.9 Federal govt.12.1 State/local govt.33.0 Self-employed7.4 Other11.0
Annual Rates of Assault by selected occupational fields National Crime Victims Survey, US DOJ 2001 Occupational FieldRate/100 0 Retail Sales18.3 Transportation13.7 Teaching16.6 Law Enforcement125.0 Mental Health50.9 Medical12.8 Other fields11.8
The Silent Epidemic 58% of harassed employees do not report incidents Fewer than half of workers report assault to the police Only 25% of rapes at work are reported Source: National Crime Victimization Survey
What are the Causes of Under- Reporting of Workplace Assaults? “Part of the job” syndrome “Consequence of living in a violent society” Fear of blame or reprisal Lack of management/ peer support No serious injuries “Not worth the effort”
Typology Type I – Criminal intent (stranger) Type II – Customer/client/patient Type III – Co-worker Type IV – Personal (friend/family)
Identify All Risk Factors Potential perpetrators / intent At-risk staff Activities / Situations Locations Times of day / week / year
Risk Identification Activities (1) Records review –OSHA logs –Logs of other incidents –You / union have right to records Check for completeness Review multiple years – look for trends
Color coding of injuries/incidents : Blue:1 Green:2 - 4 Orange:5 > Risk mapping
Risk Identification Activities (2) Review Policies and Programs What policies exist? Cover all types/sources of violence Post-incident investigation and support Are they applied consistently? Periodically reviewed and revised
Zero Tolerance Policies Worker-focused approach May violate “just cause” standards May be viewed as unfair if they are arbitrary and reflexive Ignores systemic causes Proceed with caution!
Risk Identification Activities (3) Worksite inspection Building and grounds Dangerous areas Potential weapons / “exacerbators” Checklist Conduct regularly
Risk Identification Activities (4) Talk to the Workers –Face-to-face –Questionnaire survey –Focus groups –Provide confidentiality, as needed –Report H&S cmte activities
Risk Identification Activities (5) Talk to Students/Families –Individually –Focus groups –Identify “stressors” and triggers –Form coalitions
Risk Factors (organizational/administrative) (1) Staffing Adequate numbers Distribution –Shift –Location OT – excessive, mandated
Risk Factors (organizational/administrative) (2) Rules and Work Procedures Intake, meds, etc. Meals, phones, smoking, etc. Goldilocks
Risk Factors (organizational/administrative) (3) Communication and Teamwork Between shifts Across disciplines
Risk Factors (organizational/administrative) (4) Training and Education Tailored to worksite Mandatory Periodic refreshers Interactive Focus only on individual actions?
Risk Factors (Physical Environment) (1) Access control Working in isolation Hidden areas Surveillance cameras Security hardware, alarm systems, etc.
Risk Factors (Physical Environment) (2) Lighting, noise, air quality Sharp edges Hard surfaces Work in dangerous neighborhoods Other?
What are YOUR risks? Who, what where, when, why, how? What are the causes? What can you/we do?
Comprehensive program Debriefing Medical and psychological counseling Victims, witnesses, co-workers Identify and adopt preventive measures Interactions with the criminal justice system Post-incident Response
OSHA GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE: SECTION 5(a)(1) Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm This includes the prevention and control of the hazard of workplace violence
OSHA Guidelines Preventing Workplace Violence for HealthCare and Social Service Workers (1996/2003) www.osha.gov
Violence Prevention Programs Core Elements OSHA 2003 Management Commitment and Employee Involvement Worksite Analysis Hazard Prevention and Control Safety and Health Training Recordkeeping and Program Evaluation
Violence Prevention Programs Assign responsibility and authority Involve staff in all aspects of violence prevention Allocate adequate resources Encourage reporting – No reprisals Equal commitment to worker safety and client outcomes
Hazard Evaluation & Control Organize a team Analyze injury data Focus groups/ survey affected staff Evaluate work environment Organize to implement changes
Labor’s Strategies joint L/M programs contract language and grievances OSHA complaints, PR, Coalitions promulgation of state and federal laws –Washington State rule for hospitals –Lisa’s Law in Michigan –Marty’s Law in Washington
PEF’s Stop Workplace Violence Campaign Outcomes $250,000 from PEF Membership Benefits 10 regionally-based day-long mobilization/trainings Development of booklet and DVD Successful legislative campaign Increased activity
Mobe/training Participants Number of Regional Trainings – 10 Total Participants – 318 Members – 294 Regional Coordinators – 12 Vice-Presidents - 3 EOL Used – 213 PEF Staff - 24 PEF Divisions – 116 Total Workplaces - 126
SWV Campaign Follow-up Source of Workplace Violence Patient/client/inmate – 70.4% Co-worker – 16.5% Member of the public – 13.9% Supervisor – 2.6% Spouse/family/partner – 0.8% Robber – 0.0% data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents
SWV Campaign Follow-up Post-training Actions Spoke with co-workers – 91.3% Spoke with management – 75.7% Committee deal w/ issue – 68.7% Formed new committee– 16.5% Participate in legisl. camp.– 80.9% data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents
SWV Campaign Follow-up Post-training Changes Any change – 36.5% Physical environment – 19.1% New/revised policy – 8.7% Staffing– 8.7% Other– 9.6% data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents
Legislative Program Annual Report on Workplace Injuries and Costs in State Agencies: S6840 Robach / A9692 John VETOED Judi Scanlon Bill: S207 Maziarz / A2570 Hoyt VETOED Workplace Violence Prevention Bill: S6441 Spano / A9691 John SIGNED
NEW NYS Violence Standard All public employers must evaluate their workplaces to identify violence-related risk factors Must implement written program (if >20 workers) –List of risk factors –Risk-reduction measures Takes effect 2007 Get Involved !!
Workplace Violence Resources www.pef.org www.pef.org www.osha.gov www.osha.gov www.cdc.gov/niosh www.cdc.gov/niosh –Violence in the workplace, CIB 57 (1996) –Violence: Occupational hazards in hospitals (2002) –Violence on the job (DVD) (2004)