Presentation on theme: "Understand psychological approaches to health and social care"— Presentation transcript:
1Understand psychological approaches to health and social care Part Two: D2Evaluate the usefulness of psychological approaches to health and social care practice
2Understand psychological approaches to health and social care Learning Outcome - The learner will:Assessment Criteria Pass -The learner can:Merit – in addition to the pass criteria the learner can:Distinction –In addition to the pass and merit criteria the learner can:Understand psychological approaches to health and social careP2Explain different psychological approaches to health practiceP3Explain different psychological approaches to social care practiceM1Explain how practitioners could apply psychological approaches to health and social care practiceD2Evaluate the usefulness of psychological approaches to health and social care practice
3How do you chose an approach? There are many theories in psychology but some work better in certain areas than others. Psychodynamic works best with people who have good communication skills.Most care workers will be able to use a problem solving framework to help them decide which approach to use. However, some care workers will specialise in certain approaches. Factors which help them decide include:What has worked well in the pastApproaches which give quick resultsWhat training has been givenAge, culture and understanding of the client.assessmentWorkinghypothesisinterventionreviewHow do you chose an approach?
4Evaluating approaches – looking at strengths and weaknesses. A care practitioner may choose from the theories to help their client.It would depend on the nature of the client’s concerns, the training and experience of the practitioner and how comfortable the care worker felt with using a particular model.To evaluate an approach, the strengths and weaknesses need to be considered as well as the impact it would have on a service user.
5In pairs think about the strengths and weaknesses of each approach The Behavioural approach looks at observed behaviourThe Cognitive approach listens to the clientThe Humanistic approach listens to the client and gives theclient choicesThe Psychodynamic approach interprets what the personsays and doesIn pairs think about the strengths and weaknesses of each approachThink of ONE health or social care example where the approach would work
6Behavioural approachDoesn’t look at what is going on inside someone’s head – makes it narrow and limitedPeople can’t work on helping themselves as there is no thinking involvedDeals with symptoms not causes so can be short termBehaviours caused by anxiety etc can be exhibited in other ways and behaviours – symptom substitutionTime out and other methods of behaviour modification can be seen as upsetting and demeaning – how is it different from punishmentManipulative and dehumanising – sees humans as people who simply respond and repeat actions which give them pleasureDeterministic – doesn’t allow humans choiceDoes it follow the care base values?Theory is easy to understandExperimental work to show how behaviour reinforcement worksIt’s objective and people can agree on what is happening- only observable behaviour is looked atEasy to put into practice – people do this approach “naturally”Results can be quick and it is shown to workDoesn’t rely on communication skills so can work with all ages and abilitiesAlso easy to use on anxious service usersCan “shape behaviour” gradually and a person can develop “new” behaviours and skills.Doesn’t label people as “abnormal” and so avoids labelling people
7Psychodynamic Approach Theories very complicated to understandPractitioners need specialist training which may take a long time – they view themselves as the “expert” and only they can sort out the problemsClient can get over reliant on therapistTheory is not based on science but how the psychotherapist interprets what the client saysBased on unconscious thoughts and analysation of what people think and doHarmful as the insights can be very distressing for the clientFalse memory syndrome is controversialDeterministic view of life – we have little control of our actions because of what has happened in our early childhoodLengthy and costlySome claim it doesn’t actually work and it is hard to assess or measure it’s success as an approachTheory is based on Freud who worked with middle class patients in Vienna at the end of the last century - how relevant are his interpretations to modern life?Gets to the root of problemsEffective as it gives the client an insight into why they think or feel as they doCan change many parts of their lives, not just behaviourRespectfulBeen used for a long time and has been seen to work effectivelyCan be used for a wide range of problems including sexual disorders, depression and eating problems.Tries to work out why irrational beliefs arise which leads to many problems being looked at all at the same time
8Cognitive approachStructured approach of understanding and changing behaviourTheory is easy to understand and process of theory is understood – it makes sense to the client.Pays attention to what the client says – what the person thinks and feelsTherapist then looks for faulty or dysfunctional beliefs which affects how the client behaves.There is no therapist interpretation or finding “hidden meanings”Direct approachEasy to learn and apply – clients can learn the techniques and use themselves in other areas of their livesAims for independence of the client – empowerment is key and so follows the care value baseWidely used in health care and can be applied to a wide range of issues e.g. stress, anxiety, anger managementCost effective and can be relatively quickNot suitable for all as it relies on good language skills – the client needs to be able to express their thoughts and understand what the counsellor wants them to doHard to use with those that can’t follow a rational train of thoughtDoesn’t deal with the underlying causes of problemsOne problem worked on at a timeDebate on it’s effectiveness – some studies show it works, some show it doesn’t
9Humanistic ApproachIgnores innate problems that could be causing behavioursShort termClient needs good communication skillsDifficult to show effectivenessNo uniformity in trainingKey terms difficult to understand e.g. congruence, self actualisationTherapist has be non judgemental to all people which can be hard to obtainPerson centredTherapist is non intrusive – meet clients as equals in the process and not as the expertTraining is not dependant on other professional qualificationsDoesn’t label clientFollows the care value baseUnconditional regard, empathy and genuineness are qualities many health care workers have alreadyCentres around the thought that people have choices and can change their lives – to become much more than they are (self actualisation)Can be applied to many situationsVery positive view!Focuses on the short term nature of therapy
10What questions should a care worker ask before using an approach? AM I trained and competentIn this approach?Does it seem to fit the with the presentingProblem?Can I do an assessment?What interventions can I use?Is it cost effective?What approach will I use with this service user?Will it work?Has it worked in thepast?Does it fit with ourCare value base?What are the risks?Are these risks acceptable?What questions should a care worker ask before using an approach?
11Task D2 Evaluate the usefulness of psychological approaches to health and social care practice You will need to consider our discussions on evaluating the approaches, and read the case studies provided before doing this task. If you use primary evidence remember confidentialityFor the final part of your training you need to show that you can evaluate the usefulness of the psychological approaches used in HSC.Prepare materials that show you have considered the usefulness of the approach, the impact the approach may have on a service user and the situations in HSC where the approaches may be used. You MUST show that you have considered the strengths and weaknesses of the four major approaches used.