# Hydraulic and pneumatic systems use fluid power.

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Hydraulic and pneumatic systems use fluid power.
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Fluid Power Fluid power is the use of liquids or gases under pressure to move objects or perform other tasks. Any substance that flows is a fluid. Liquids and gases are both fluids. Fluids only have power when they are flowing. Fluids can be put under pressure and moved through pipes or hoses to where they are needed.

Matter All objects are made of matter. The three states of matter are
solid liquid gas The state of matter is determined by how tightly its molecules are held together.

Solids The molecules in solids are very strongly linked
are hard to compress maintain both their volume and shape

Liquids The molecules in liquids are more loosely linked
are hard to compress maintain their volume but not their shape

Gases The molecules in gases are very loosely linked
are easy to compress do not maintain either their shape or volume

Boyle’s Law There is a direct relationship between the temperature and pressure of any gas. P (pressure) x V (volume) = a constant number If pressure increases, the volume of the gas will decrease. If the volume increases, the pressure will decrease. This is true only if the temperature of the gas stays the same.

Pascal’s Principle If a force is applied to a confined liquid, the resulting pressure is the same throughout the fluid and on the walls of the fluid’s container. Force, in the form of pressure, is transferred within fluid power systems.

Hydraulic Systems Hydraulic systems use oil or another liquid.
Liquids are very difficult to compress, so they can be used to transfer very powerful forces from one place to another. Hydraulic systems are ideal when high power and accuracy are required.

Parts of a Hydraulic System
A simple hydraulic system consists of: Fluid Pump Reservoir Relief valve Control valve Single-acting cylinder Transmission lines

Uses of Hydraulic Systems
Manufacturing Transportation Construction Agriculture Entertainment industry

Pneumatic Systems Pneumatic systems use a gas, usually air.
Pressure is built up by compressing the gas. Pneumatic systems can usually be lighter weight than hydraulic systems. The air they use is always available and since it is not a hazardous material, there is nothing to clean up.

Parts of a Pneumatic System
A simple pneumatic system consists of: Compressor Receiver Check valve Control valve Actuator

Uses of Pneumatic Systems
Construction Manufacturing Packaging Health care