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Landstown High School Governors STEM & Technology AcademyAdvanced Robotics Chapter 6- Fluid Power Systems Dr. Barger
Fluid Power Systems Fluid power systems use air or liquid, or a combination of both, to transfer power. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Fluid Power Systems Transfer MethodsElectrical energy is often used to drive a fluid pump. Electrical energy and mechanical motion are converted into the energy of a flowing liquid. Hydraulic systems use oil, or other liquids, while pneumatic systems use air. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Fluid Power Systems All fluid power systems consist of: Controls,An energy source, A transmission path, A load, Indicators, © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Hydraulic System ModelHydraulic Systems are used for many applications in Robotics: Operates motors, Actuators, Cylinders (load devices) Usally electrical energy drives a pump which provides hydraulic pressure, © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Hydraulic System ModelPrime Mover system A prime mover is a component of a power system that provides the initial power for movement in the system,, The motor receives electrical energy from the source and converts it to rotary energy or movement. The pump converts the rotary energy into fluid energy. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Basic Hydraulic SystemLS 6-1 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Hydraulic System ModelControl Systems A typical hydraulic fluid power system includes a number of control devices, Directional control valve (DCV) (cylinders), Pressure relief valves, A pressure relief valve is a control device that protects the system from stress and damage caused by over pressurizing the system. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Hydraulic Control DevicesLS 6-2 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pneumatic System ModelIn a typical pneumatic system, the energy source powers a compressor which forces air into a pressurized storage tank. The compressor is most often driven by an electric motor, or internal combustion engine. The storage tank hold the pressurized air and acts as a reservoir for the system. Typical uses are for: Power tools, and Lifting and clamping during machining operations. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pneumatic System LS 6-3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Characteristics of Fluid FlowFluid power systems do not achieve 100 percent power transfer, Due to friction from the cylinder walls, This friction is known as “resistance” or power loss, Power loss materializes primarily as heat, © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pneumatic Systems TurbulenceRefers to how the fluid moves through the fluid power system. Conditions of the system, such as: size and smoothness of the tubing walls, Location and number of valves and fittings, may cause irregular flow characteristics. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pneumatic Systems Pressure drops Energy LossRestrictions within the system are also a source of pressure drops. These can be caused by: Control valves, tubing length, or small tubing size Energy Loss As fluid pressure enters the system, it has the ability to perform a specific amount of work. Fluid energy is lost because it is changed into heat due to friction and resistance. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pressure Drops in a Fluid SystemLS 6-4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pneumatic Systems Compression of FluidsA notable difference between hydraulic and pneumatic systems is the compressibility of the fluids, All gases and liquids are compressible under certain conditions for each, Hydraulic fluid is considered incompressible, Air in pneumatic systems is readily compressible. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerPascal’s Law Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted, undiminished, throughout the fluid. This pressure acts on all surfaces of the container, at right angles to those surfaces, For this reason, the walls of the cylinder must be strong enough to withstand the pressure. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pascal’s Law LS 6-5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerTerminology Force Is any factor that tends to produce or modify the motion of an object. Inertia- the amount of force needed to produce motion (or resistance to change) of the body to be moved. Pressure Is the amount of force applied to a specific area. Usally in pounds per square inch (psi). © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerFluid Power System Components Fluid Pumps The heart of a fluid system. It provides an appropriate flow to develop pressure. Two general classifications: Positive displacement pump, Has a close clearance between the moving member and stationary pump components, Non-Positive displacement pump The fluid is moved by the impeller blades during each revolution. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Fluid Pumps LS 6-6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerExamples Reciprocating pumps- Positive displacement, Rotary Gear Pumps- positive displacement, Rotary Vane Pumps- positive displacement, Centrifugal pumps- non-positive displacement, © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Operation of a Reciprocating PumpLS 6-7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Rotary Gear Pumps LS 6-8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Rotary Vane Pump LS 6-9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Centrifugal Pumps LS 6-10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pressure Regulator Valve OperationLS 6-11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerFluid Conditioning Devices Both hydraulic fluid and air must be conditioned before being processed through a fluid power system. Conditioning devices prolong the life of fluid power systems by removing foreign particles and moisture. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerHydraulic Conditioning The number of components, types of control devices and operating environment are major considerations in hydraulic fluid conditioning. Types used: Strainers- Inline devices, Filters- Inline device, Heat exchangers- Forced-air fans, Water-jacket coolers, Gas coolers. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerPneumatic Conditioning Several types of devices are used but the most often is a filtering device, Filters Filtering must remove moisture and foreign particles, so they contain “desiccant”, which is a very dry material designed to attract moisture, Lubricators Lubricators are devices that add a small quantity of oil to the air after it leaves the regulator. The lubrication helps the valves and cylinders operate more efficiently. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
FRL Unit LS 6-12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Fluid Power Systems Control DevicesControl is achieved by devices that alter the pressure, direction and volume of fluid flow. Pressure Control Flow Control Direction Control © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Fluid Check Valve (Pressure Control)LS 6-13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Four-way Valve (Flow Control)LS 6-15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Flow Control Valve Operation (Direction Control)LS 6-16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerLoad Devices The term actuator is often used to identify the load device. Linear Actuators Rotary Actuators Fluid Motors © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Linear Actuator LS 6-17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Rotary Actuators LS 6-20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Principles of Fluid PowerHybrid Systems A number of industrial systems produce mechanical energy by combining fluid power and electrical power systems. Example: Hoists use in car repair operations, © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
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