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Chapter 16 Study Guide

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Four States of Matter Solids Solids –low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around –atoms held tightly into place –definite shape & volume

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Four States of Matter Liquids Liquids –higher KE - particles can move around but are still close together – no definite shape –definite volume

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Four States of Matter Gases Gases –high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container – no definite shape & volume –move more quickly than particles that make up solids

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Four States of Matter Plasma Plasma –very high KE – made up of charged particles (+/-) –gas-like, indefinite shape & volume –most common state of matter of matter –stars

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Pressure Pressure is the amount of force exerted per unit of area, or P = F/A. Pressure is measured in a unit called Pascal (Pa), the SI unit of pressure. Most matter expands when heated.

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Heating Curves Heat of Fusion Heat of Fusion –energy required to change from solid to liquid –some attractive forces are broken

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Heating Curves Heat of Vaporization Heat of Vaporization –energy required to change from liquid to gas –all attractive forces are broken

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Archimedes’ Principle Archimedes - Whether an object will sink or float in a fluid - Whether an object will sink or float in a fluid Viscosity Viscosity –Resistance to flow by a fluid

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More water needs to be displaced in order to cancel weight ball floats lower in the water. Not enough water is displaced in order to cancel weight ball sinks. Archimedes’ Principle Archimedes’ Principle Archimedes’ Principle –the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the object Very little water needs to be displaced in order to cancel weight ball floats on surface. View animationsView animations produced by students at Poly Prep Country Day School in Brooklyn, New York. View Buoyancy JAVA Applet.

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Archimedes’ Principle Buoyant Force Buoyant Force –upward force exerted by a fluid on an immersed object –buoyant force > weight –buoyant force = weight –buoyant force < weight balloon rises balloon sinks balloon floats

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V T Charles’ Law According to Charles’s law, the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, (at constant pressure) DIRECT

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Pascal’s Principle Pascal’s Principle Pascal’s Principle –pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid Pascal - hydraulics

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Boyle’s Law When the volume of a gas decreases, its pressure increases (at constant temp). When the volume of a gas decreases, its pressure increases (at constant temp). P V P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 INVERSE As the volume is increased, the pressure will decrease.As the volume is increased, the pressure will decrease.

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Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli’s Principle –as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases –why planes fly

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Thermal Expansion When concrete absorbs heat, it expands. Then when it cools, it contracts. When concrete absorbs heat, it expands. Then when it cools, it contracts. If expansion joints are not used, the concrete will crack when the temperature changes. If expansion joints are not used, the concrete will crack when the temperature changes.

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If you place a balloon in a freezer the molecules will slow down and the balloon will shrink as the volume decreases Charles’ Law

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Absolute Zero - Temp at which... Absolute Zero - Temp at which... –the volume of a gas would equal zero. –all particle motion would stop °C or 0 K

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