# Chapter 16 Study Guide.

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Chapter 16 Study Guide

Four States of Matter Solids
low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around atoms held tightly into place definite shape & volume

Four States of Matter Liquids
higher KE - particles can move around but are still close together no definite shape definite volume

Four States of Matter Gases
high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container no definite shape & volume move more quickly than particles that make up solids

Four States of Matter Plasma
very high KE – made up of charged particles (+/-) gas-like, indefinite shape & volume most common state of matter stars

Pressure Pressure is the amount of force exerted per unit of area, or P = F/A. Pressure is measured in a unit called Pascal (Pa), the SI unit of pressure. Most matter expands when heated.

Heating Curves Heat of Fusion
energy required to change from solid to liquid some attractive forces are broken

Heating Curves Heat of Vaporization
energy required to change from liquid to gas all attractive forces are broken

Archimedes’ Principle
- Whether an object will sink or float in a fluid Viscosity Resistance to flow by a fluid

Archimedes’ Principle
the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the object Very little water needs to be displaced in order to cancel weight  ball floats on surface. More water needs to be displaced in order to cancel weight  ball floats lower in the water. Not enough water is displaced in order to cancel weight  ball sinks. View Buoyancy JAVA Applet. View animations produced by students at Poly Prep Country Day School in Brooklyn, New York.

Archimedes’ Principle
Buoyant Force upward force exerted by a fluid on an immersed object buoyant force > weight balloon rises buoyant force < weight balloon sinks buoyant force = weight balloon floats

Charles’ Law According to Charles’s law, the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, (at constant pressure) V T DIRECT

Pascal’s Principle Pascal - hydraulics Pascal’s Principle
pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluid Pascal - hydraulics

Boyle’s Law When the volume of a gas decreases, its pressure increases (at constant temp). As the volume is increased, the pressure will decrease. P V P1V1= P2V2 INVERSE

Bernoulli’s Principle
as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases why planes fly

Thermal Expansion When concrete absorbs heat, it expands. Then when it cools, it contracts. If expansion joints are not used, the concrete will crack when the temperature changes.

Charles’ Law If you place a balloon in a freezer the molecules will slow down and the balloon will shrink as the volume decreases

Charles’ Law -273°C or 0 K Absolute Zero - Temp at which...
the volume of a gas would equal zero. all particle motion would stop. -273°C or 0 K