2 Four States of Matter Solids low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move aroundatoms held tightly into placedefinite shape & volume
3 Four States of Matter Liquids higher KE - particles can move around but are still close togetherno definite shapedefinite volume
4 Four States of Matter Gases high KE - particles can separate and move throughout containerno definite shape & volumemove more quickly than particles that make up solids
5 Four States of Matter Plasma very high KE – made up of charged particles (+/-)gas-like, indefinite shape & volumemost common stateof matterstars
6 PressurePressure is the amount of force exerted per unit of area, or P = F/A.Pressure is measured in a unit called Pascal (Pa), the SI unit of pressure.Most matter expands when heated.
7 Heating Curves Heat of Fusion energy required to change from solid to liquidsome attractive forces are broken
8 Heating Curves Heat of Vaporization energy required to change from liquid to gasall attractive forces are broken
9 Archimedes’ Principle - Whether an object will sink or float in a fluidViscosityResistance to flow by a fluid
10 Archimedes’ Principle the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the objectVery little water needs to be displaced in order to cancel weight ball floats on surface.More water needs to be displaced in order to cancel weight ball floats lower in the water.Not enough water is displaced in order to cancel weight ball sinks.View Buoyancy JAVA Applet.View animations produced by students at Poly Prep Country Day School in Brooklyn, New York.
11 Archimedes’ Principle Buoyant Forceupward force exerted by a fluid on an immersed objectbuoyant force > weightballoon risesbuoyant force < weightballoon sinksbuoyant force = weightballoon floats
12 Charles’ LawAccording to Charles’s law, the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature, (at constant pressure)VTDIRECT
13 Pascal’s Principle Pascal - hydraulics Pascal’s Principle pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted unchanged throughout the fluidPascal - hydraulics
14 Boyle’s LawWhen the volume of a gas decreases, its pressure increases (at constant temp).As the volume is increased, the pressure will decrease.PVP1V1= P2V2INVERSE
15 Bernoulli’s Principle as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreaseswhy planes fly
16 Thermal ExpansionWhen concrete absorbs heat, it expands. Then when it cools, it contracts.If expansion joints are not used, the concrete will crack when the temperature changes.
17 Charles’ LawIf you place a balloon in a freezer the molecules will slow down and the balloon will shrink as the volume decreases
18 Charles’ Law -273°C or 0 K Absolute Zero - Temp at which... the volume of a gas would equal zero.all particle motion would stop.-273°Cor0 K