2 Properties of Solids Density Amount of matter in a certain amount of space (density = mass volume)Refers to how closely atoms or molecules are packed togetherA substance is most dense in the solid phase and least dense in the gaseous phaseEXCEPTION: WATER!!
3 Properties of Solids Hardness Brittleness Elasticity Malleability Tensile strength
4 Density of FluidsA substance in liquid form is less dense than in the solid form (except water)Liquids layer themselves according to densityLayered solution labWhy NOT to put out a grease fire with water
5 Buoyancy of FluidsBuoyancy – measures the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an objectArchimedes’ Principle – the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the objectAll fluids do NOT exert the same buoyant force on an object
6 Buoyancy of Fluids Buoyant force > object’s weight = floats Buoyant force < object’s weight = sinksBuoyant force = object’s weight = neither sinks nor floats
7 Buoyancy and FluidsThe more fluid the object displaces, the greater the buoyant force on it (and more likely it is to float)
8 Charles’s LawWhen the temperature of a gas increases, its volume also increases (and when the temp decreases, the volume decreases)When the air inside a basketball gets warm, it takes up more spaceWhen the air inside the ball gets cold, it takes up less space
9 Boyle’s LawWhen the pressure of a gas increases, its volume decreases (and when the pressure decreases, its volume increases)When a bottle of pop is opened, the compressed gas inside spreads out, taking up all the space available
10 Viscosity of FluidsViscosity – measure of the material’s resistance to flowDepends on the size and shape of the moleculesDoes NOT depend on density
11 Viscosity of FluidsFor liquids, viscosity decreases when temperature increasesFor gases, viscosity increases when temperature increases
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