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Chapter 17 Review Properties of Matter

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Properties of Solids Density –Amount of matter in a certain amount of space (density = mass volume) –Refers to how closely atoms or molecules are packed together –A substance is most dense in the solid phase and least dense in the gaseous phase EXCEPTION: WATER!!

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Properties of Solids Hardness Brittleness Elasticity Malleability Tensile strength

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Density of Fluids A substance in liquid form is less dense than in the solid form (except water) Liquids layer themselves according to density –Layered solution lab –Why NOT to put out a grease fire with water

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Buoyancy of Fluids Buoyancy – measures the upward pressure a fluid exerts on an object Archimedes Principle – the force exerted on an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object All fluids do NOT exert the same buoyant force on an object

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Buoyancy of Fluids Buoyant force > objects weight = floats Buoyant force < objects weight = sinks Buoyant force = objects weight = neither sinks nor floats

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Buoyancy and Fluids The more fluid the object displaces, the greater the buoyant force on it (and more likely it is to float)

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Charless Law When the temperature of a gas increases, its volume also increases (and when the temp decreases, the volume decreases) –When the air inside a basketball gets warm, it takes up more space –When the air inside the ball gets cold, it takes up less space

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Boyles Law When the pressure of a gas increases, its volume decreases (and when the pressure decreases, its volume increases) –When a bottle of pop is opened, the compressed gas inside spreads out, taking up all the space available

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Viscosity of Fluids Viscosity – measure of the materials resistance to flow –Depends on the size and shape of the molecules –Does NOT depend on density

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Viscosity of Fluids For liquids, viscosity decreases when temperature increases For gases, viscosity increases when temperature increases

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