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# Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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Solids, Liquids, and Gases
CHAPTER 16 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Section 1: Kinetic Theory
Kinetic theory—explains how particles in matter behave All matter is composed of small particles. Particles are in constant, random motion. Particles collide with each other and walls of their containers.

Thermal energy—total energy of a material’s particles; causes particles to vibrate in place
Temperature is the average kinetic energy of a substance, or how fast the particles are moving. The lower the temperature, the slower the particle motion

Solid state—particles are closely packed together in a specific type of geometric arrangement.

Liquid state—a solid begins to liquefy at the melting point as the particles gain enough energy to overcome their ordered arrangement. Energy required to reach the melting point is called the heat of fusion. Liquid particles have more space between them allowing them to flow and take the shape of their container.

Gaseous state—a liquid’s particles have enough energy to escape the attractive forces of the other particles in the liquid. Heat of vaporization is the energy required for a liquid to change to a gas. At the boiling point, the pressure of the liquid’s vapor is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere, and that liquid becomes a gas. Gas particles spread evenly throughout their container in the process of diffusion.

States of Matter and Phase Changes

Thermal expansion—increase in the size of a substance when the temperature increases
The size of a substance will then decrease when the temperature decreases. Expansion and contraction occur in most solids, liquids, and gases. Water is an exception because it expands as it becomes a solid.

Section 2: Properties of Fluids
Buoyancy—ability of a fluid (liquid or gas) to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it. An object in a fluid will float if its weight is less than the buoyant force acting on it from the fluid. An object in a fluid will sink if its weight is more than the buoyant force acting on it from the fluid. Archimedes’ principle— buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. An object will float if its density is less than the density of the fluid it is placed in.

Pascal’s principle— pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid
Pressure is force exerted per unit area. Hydraulic machines use this principle to lift heavy loads.

Bernoulli’s principle—as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases airplanes use this principle to fly.

Viscosity—a liquid’s resistance to flow
Molecular structure determines a fluid’s viscosity. Increased temperature will lower viscosity.

Section 3: Behaviors of Gases
Pressure is measured in units called pascal (Pa). Collisions of particles in air result in atmospheric pressure. Moving particles colliding with the inside walls of a container result in gas pressure.

Boyle’s Law—relates pressure and volume
Volume decreases as pressure increases. Pressure decreases as volume increases. Pressure multiplied by volume is always equal to a constant if the temperature is constant. P1V1 = P2 V2 (Temperature remains constant)

Charles’s Law—relates volume and temperature
At a constant pressure, volume increases as temperature increases. At a constant pressure volume decreases as temperature decreases. V1 / T1 = V2/T2 (pressure must remain constant) (Temperature given in Kelvin) To convert Celsius to Kelvin add 273 to Celsius reading

As temperature increases, pressure increases
Gay-Lussac’s Law—relates pressure and temperature; at a constant volume As temperature increases, pressure increases As temperature decreases, pressure decreases P1 / T1 = P2/T2 (when volume is constant)

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