1 BBN-ANG-253Advanced Syntax Lecture CourseAutumn, 2014/15Course DescriptionTopic 1Starting out: Event Structure, Aspect and the Simplest Verb Typesrecapitulation: the UTAH, X-bar Theorytense vs. aspect (lexical aspect vs. grammatical aspect)simple vs. complex event structureunaccusative verbs and constructions involving light verbsReading: Newson et al. Ch 5: 1 Event Structure and Aspect – 2.2 Light verbsTopic 2More complex verb types 1ergative verbstransitive verbs and multiple light verb constructionsReading: Newson et al. Ch 5: 2.3 Ergative verbs – 2.4 Transitive verbsTopic 3More complex verb types 2intransitive verbsverbs with multiple complementsphrasal verbsReading: Newson et al. Ch 5: 2.5 Intransitive verbs – 2.7 Phrasal verbs
2 Topic 4More complex verb types 3verbs with clausal complementsextending the analysis: aspectual auxiliariesReading: Newson et al. Ch 5: 2.8 – Verbs with clausal complements – 3 Aspectual auxiliary verbsTopic 5Modifiers in the VPVP-adverbs vs. sentential adverbsPP-modifiersClausal modifiersverbs that do not fit inReading: Newson et al. Ch 5: 4 Adverbs, PPs and clausal modifiersTopic 6The Structure of IPtense, agreement, negationcase assignmentReading: Newson et al. Ch 6 Inflection Phrases
3 Topic 7The Structure of CP 1clause typesinterrogative CPs: wh-movement, inversionReading: Newson et al. Ch 7: 1 The structure of CP – 3.5 Subject questionsTopic 8The Structure of CP 2wh-movement in relative clausesfurther types of fronting movement: topicalisation, focus- and negative frontingReading: Newson et al. Ch 7: 4 Relative clauses – 6 ConclusionTopic 9The Structure of Non-finite Clauses 1exceptional clauses and small clausesraising and controlReading: Newson et al. Ch 8 The syntax of non-finite clauses
4 Topic 10The Structure of Non-finite Clauses 2the gerundTopic 11Summary/RevisionSet text: Newson, M. et al Basic English Syntax with Exercises. Bölcsész Konzorcium, ELTE. Ch 5-8
5 Event Structure, Aspect and the Simplest Verb Types 1 Event Structure: simple versus complex events Verbs in a sentence express an event which can be an action or state. 1 a The ship sank. b The pirates sank the ship. c e = e1 d e = e1 → e2 2 a Peter sent Mary flowers b e = e1 → e2 → e3 Simple events are represented by simpler VPs while more complex events by more complex VPs. Tense: relates an event at a particular point in time to the time of speaking. Aspect: describes time relations internal to an event.
6 2 Aspect: lexical and grammatical Lexical aspect (Aktionsart): internal to the meaning of the verb, which expresses an event with a natural endpoint. Grammatical aspect: encoded via syntactic means. 3 a The boy is eating an apple b The boy is standing in the corner Lexical and grammatical aspect in Hungarian: 4 a győz, dob, kap (morphologically simple verbs) b főz-megfőz, olvas-elolvas, takarít-kitakarít c János ’ment ’át az utcán, amikor meglátta Marit. d János átment az utcán.
7 3 The simplest verb types 3.1 Unaccusativestypically verbs of movement or location, taking one DP argument to which they assign a theme theta-role (with some of them a location argument, often optional, can also occur, expressed by a PP)5 a a train arrived (on platform 6)b a rabbit sat in the cornerthey are grammatical in a there-construction (cf. raising verbs)6 a there arrived a train on platform 6b there sat a rabbit in the cornerc *there sat the rabbit in the cornerd a rabbit helplessly sat in the cornere *there helplessly sat a rabbit in the corner7 a It seems that they have a problem.b They seem to have a problem.c There seems to be a problem.they are grammatical in locative inversion constructions8 a in the corner sat a rabbitb *on the cheek kissed Peter his motherc *in the fridge put the girl the ice cream
8 9 a in the corner there sat a rabbit b on platform 6 there arrived a trainthey cannot take cognate objects (cf. intransitives)10 a *a train arrived an arrivalb he smiled a wicked smile(11) VP VPDP V’ DP V’themeV PP V
9 3.2 Light verb constructions type (i) typically involves verbs like have, do, take, make, etc. and a noun which carries most of the semantic content of the construction; type (ii) involves e.g. make, let, get, etc. and a VP containing a noun and a verb;12 a he took a bathb they had an argument13 a he made the engine startb he let the bottle fall (cf. he made the bottle fall)
10 (14) vP vPDP v’ DP v’agentv DP v VPDP V’VNote: with type one the structure is not straightforward. As it is, there is no thematic V head position, alternatively, if a thematic VP is projected, its head position remains empty.