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Unit 4 Part II. Intensifiers & Quantifiers An intensifier An intensifier Definition: a word/group of words which normally indicates emphasis or strong.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Part II. Intensifiers & Quantifiers An intensifier An intensifier Definition: a word/group of words which normally indicates emphasis or strong."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 Part II

2 Intensifiers & Quantifiers An intensifier An intensifier Definition: a word/group of words which normally indicates emphasis or strong feeling Definition: a word/group of words which normally indicates emphasis or strong feeling Type: A kind of Adv which is sometimes called an adverb of degree Type: A kind of Adv which is sometimes called an adverb of degree Function: used to modify Adj, Adv, V, VP, or another intensifier Function: used to modify Adj, Adv, V, VP, or another intensifier Position: before or after the word that it modifies Position: before or after the word that it modifies Example: Am I good enough for her? Example: Am I good enough for her? A quantifier A quantifier Definition: a word/group of words which indicates the quantity of something Definition: a word/group of words which indicates the quantity of something Type: A kind of N determiner called an indefinite determiner Type: A kind of N determiner called an indefinite determiner Function: used to modify N which follows it Function: used to modify N which follows it Position: before N that it modifies Position: before N that it modifies Example: Is there enough food for us? Example: Is there enough food for us?

3 Exercise 4 Intensifiers and Quantifiers p.50

4 Types of questions Yes/no question Yes/no question begins with an auxiliary (do, have, be) or a modal begins with an auxiliary (do, have, be) or a modal The answer yes or no is expected The answer yes or no is expected Example: Are you married? Example: Are you married? Wh-question Wh-question begins with a wh-word begins with a wh-word The answer should specify a particular person, thing, place, reason, method, or amount The answer should specify a particular person, thing, place, reason, method, or amount Example: Who is that guy standing over there? Example: Who is that guy standing over there?

5 Wh-Words (Question Words) Wh-words: who, what, where, when, why, how, which, whose, whom Wh-words: who, what, where, when, why, how, which, whose, whom Types: pronoun, adverb, determiner Types: pronoun, adverb, determiner (Pronouns/adverbs/determiners in wh- questions are sometimes called interrogative pronouns/adverbs/determiners.) Functions: subject, object, modifier Functions: subject, object, modifier Example: Who is that guy standing over there? Example: Who is that guy standing over there? (Who in this sentence = pronoun / subject)

6 Exercise 5 A 1. PronS 2. PronO 3. PronO 4. PronO 5. PronO 6. PronO 7. PronS 8. DetM 9. PronS 10. DetM 11. DetM 12. AdvM 13. AdvM 14. AdvM 15. AdvM 16. AdvM 17. AdvM 18. PronO 19. DetM 20. PronO

7 Exercise 5B 1. What 2. Who 3. What 4. When 5. How 6. Who/Whom 7. Who 8. Where 9. Why 10. How 11. Which 12. Why 13. What 14. Whose 15. Which 16. What 17. Whoever (?) 18. When 19. How 20. why

8 Connectives Definition: a word/group of words whose function is to connect or join words, phrases, and clauses Definition: a word/group of words whose function is to connect or join words, phrases, and clauses Types: Types: Coordinating conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions Correlative conjunctions Correlative conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions Relative pronouns Relative pronouns Relative adverbs Relative adverbs Transitional words (or conjunctive adverbs) Transitional words (or conjunctive adverbs) Transitional phrases Transitional phrases Prepositions Prepositions

9 Five groups of connectives classified according to their roles Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or) & Correlative conjunctions (either..or, not only..but also) join words/phrases/clauses which are grammatically equivalent Subordinating conjunctions introduce Adv/N clause and link it to the main clause (I told him when he should come.) Relative pronouns & Relative adverbs introduce Adj clause (a relative clause) (I remember the year when Richard II was born.) Transitional words & phrases join two independent clauses and modifies the clause following it (However,… In other words,…) Prepositions show the relationship between its object (called an object of/after a preposition) and some other words in the sentence (The phrase beginning with a preposition is called a prepositional phrase.) (I want to sit in the front row.)

10 3 types of subordinate clauses Adv clause Adv clause modifies V, VP, Clause, Adj, AdjP modifies V, VP, Clause, Adj, AdjP Introduced by a subordinating conjunction Introduced by a subordinating conjunction N clause N clause functions as Sub, DO, IO, OC, SC functions as Sub, DO, IO, OC, SC Introduced by a subordinating conjunction Introduced by a subordinating conjunction Adj clause (or relative clause) Adj clause (or relative clause) modifies the preceding N, NP, Pron (A relative clause is used to give further info. about something.) modifies the preceding N, NP, Pron (A relative clause is used to give further info. about something.) Introduced by a relative pronoun/adverb Introduced by a relative pronoun/adverb

11 Exercise 6A Coordinating conjunction Coordinating conjunction and, but, or Correlative conjunction Correlative conjunction either..or, neither..or, not only..but also

12 Exercise 6B Subordinating conjunctions (introducing NC/AdvC) 1. when/after (AdvC) 2. Although/though (AdvC) 3. whether/if (NC) 4. (that) (NC) 5. Since (AdvC) 6. Before (AdvC) 7. while/as (AdvC) 8. If (AdvC) 9. That (NC) 10. if/whether (NC) 11. unless (AdvC) 12. because/since (AdvC) 13. While/as (AdvC) 14. when/whenever (AdvC) 15. (that) (NC)

13 Exercise 6C Relative pronoun/adverb (introducing AdjC (relative clause)) 1. who (rp) 2. which/that (rp) 3. (which/that) (rp) 4. where (ra) 5. (why) (ra) 6. which (rp) 7. whom/who (rp) 8. (when/that) (ra) 9. when (ra) 10. who (rp) 11. whom (rp) 12. whose (noun deter. In rela. clause) 13. where/ at which (ra) 14. whom (rp) 15. (that/which/where) (ra)

14 Relative pronouns: what, who, whom, which Relative adverbs: when, where, why, how

15 Exercise 6D Transitional words/phrases p.55-56

16 Exercise 6E,F (One-word / Simple) preposition, Phrasal preposition p.56-57


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