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Unit 4 Part II.

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1 Unit 4 Part II

2 Intensifiers & Quantifiers
An intensifier Definition: a word/group of words which normally indicates emphasis or strong feeling Type: A kind of Adv which is sometimes called an adverb of degree Function: used to modify Adj, Adv, V, VP, or another intensifier Position: before or after the word that it modifies Example: Am I good enough for her? A quantifier Definition: a word/group of words which indicates the quantity of something Type: A kind of N determiner called an indefinite determiner Function: used to modify N which follows it Position: before N that it modifies Example: Is there enough food for us?

3 Exercise 4 Intensifiers and Quantifiers p.50

4 Types of questions Yes/no question Wh-question
begins with an auxiliary (“do”, “have”, “be”) or a modal The answer “yes” or “no” is expected Example: Are you married? Wh-question begins with a “wh-word” The answer should specify a particular person, thing, place, reason, method, or amount Example: Who is that guy standing over there?

5 Wh-Words (Question Words)
Wh-words: who, what, where, when, why, how, which, whose, whom Types: pronoun, adverb, determiner (Pronouns/adverbs/determiners in wh- questions are sometimes called interrogative pronouns/adverbs/determiners.) Functions: subject, object, modifier Example: Who is that guy standing over there? (“Who” in this sentence = pronoun / subject)

6 Exercise 5 A Pron S Pron O Det M Adv M Pron O Det M

7 Exercise 5B What Who When How Who/Whom Where Why Which Why What Whose
Whoever (?) When How why

8 Connectives Definition: a word/group of words whose function is to connect or join words, phrases, and clauses Types: Coordinating conjunctions Correlative conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions Relative pronouns Relative adverbs Transitional words (or conjunctive adverbs) Transitional phrases Prepositions

9 Five groups of connectives classified according to their roles
Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or) & Correlative conjunctions (either..or, not only..but also)  join words/phrases/clauses which are grammatically equivalent Subordinating conjunctions  introduce Adv/N clause and link it to the main clause (I told him when he should come.) Relative pronouns & Relative adverbs  introduce Adj clause (a relative clause) (I remember the year when Richard II was born.) Transitional words & phrases  join two independent clauses and modifies the clause following it (However,… In other words,…) Prepositions  show the relationship between its object (called an object of/after a preposition) and some other words in the sentence (The phrase beginning with a preposition is called a prepositional phrase.) (I want to sit in the front row.)

10 3 types of subordinate clauses
Adv clause modifies V, VP, Clause, Adj, AdjP Introduced by a subordinating conjunction N clause functions as Sub, DO, IO, OC, SC Adj clause (or relative clause) modifies the preceding N, NP, Pron (A relative clause is used to give further info. about something.) Introduced by a relative pronoun/adverb

11 Exercise 6A Coordinating conjunction and, but, or
Correlative conjunction either..or, neither..or, not only..but also

12 Exercise 6B Subordinating conjunctions (introducing NC/AdvC)
If (AdvC) That (NC) if/whether (NC) unless (AdvC) because/since (AdvC) While/as (AdvC) when/whenever (AdvC) (that) (NC) when/after (AdvC) Although/though (AdvC) whether/if (NC) (that) (NC) Since (AdvC) Before (AdvC) while/as (AdvC)

13 Exercise 6C Relative pronoun/adverb (introducing AdjC (relative clause))
when (ra) who (rp) whom (rp) whose (noun deter. In rela. clause) where/ at which (ra) (that/which/where) (ra) who (rp) which/that (rp) (which/that) (rp) where (ra) (why) (ra) which (rp) whom/who (rp) (when/that) (ra)

14 Relative pronouns: what, who, whom, which
Relative adverbs: when, where, why, how

15 Exercise 6D Transitional words/phrases p.55-56

16 Exercise 6E,F (One-word / Simple) preposition, Phrasal preposition p

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