2 Intensifiers & Quantifiers An intensifierDefinition: a word/group of words which normally indicates emphasis or strong feelingType: A kind of Adv which is sometimes called an adverb of degreeFunction: used to modify Adj, Adv, V, VP, or another intensifierPosition: before or after the word that it modifiesExample: Am I good enough for her?A quantifierDefinition: a word/group of words which indicates the quantity of somethingType: A kind of N determiner called an indefinite determinerFunction: used to modify N which follows itPosition: before N that it modifiesExample: Is there enough food for us?
4 Types of questions Yes/no question Wh-question begins with an auxiliary (“do”, “have”, “be”) or a modalThe answer “yes” or “no” is expectedExample: Are you married?Wh-questionbegins with a “wh-word”The answer should specify a particular person, thing, place, reason, method, or amountExample: Who is that guy standing over there?
5 Wh-Words (Question Words) Wh-words: who, what, where, when, why, how, which, whose, whomTypes: pronoun, adverb, determiner(Pronouns/adverbs/determiners in wh- questions are sometimes called interrogative pronouns/adverbs/determiners.)Functions: subject, object, modifierExample: Who is that guy standing over there?(“Who” in this sentence = pronoun / subject)
7 Exercise 5B What Who When How Who/Whom Where Why Which Why What Whose Whoever (?)WhenHowwhy
8 ConnectivesDefinition: a word/group of words whose function is to connect or join words, phrases, and clausesTypes:Coordinating conjunctionsCorrelative conjunctionsSubordinating conjunctionsRelative pronounsRelative adverbsTransitional words (or conjunctive adverbs)Transitional phrasesPrepositions
9 Five groups of connectives classified according to their roles Coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or) & Correlative conjunctions (either..or, not only..but also) join words/phrases/clauses which are grammatically equivalentSubordinating conjunctions introduce Adv/N clause and link it to the main clause (I told him when he should come.)Relative pronouns & Relative adverbs introduce Adj clause (a relative clause) (I remember the year when Richard II was born.)Transitional words & phrases join two independent clauses and modifies the clause following it (However,… In other words,…)Prepositions show the relationship between its object (called an object of/after a preposition) and some other words in the sentence (The phrase beginning with a preposition is called a prepositional phrase.) (I want to sit in the front row.)
10 3 types of subordinate clauses Adv clausemodifies V, VP, Clause, Adj, AdjPIntroduced by a subordinating conjunctionN clausefunctions as Sub, DO, IO, OC, SCAdj clause (or relative clause)modifies the preceding N, NP, Pron (A relative clause is used to give further info. about something.)Introduced by a relative pronoun/adverb
11 Exercise 6A Coordinating conjunction and, but, or Correlative conjunctioneither..or, neither..or, not only..but also