2Heads (核心詞)and complements The head of a phrase is the word whose lexicalcategory defines the type of the phrase. Everyphrase has a head that has the same syntacticcategory as the phrase.The complement of the head is the other constituents in a phrase that complete its meaning.(See examples on p. 140.)
3Every VP contains a Verb. found a puppyEvery NP contains a Noun.my new houseEvery PP contains a Preposition.in my new house
4More examples VP: found the puppy NP: the destruction of Rome a picture of Marya person worthy of praisea boy who pitched a perfect gamePP: in the garden
5Selectionpp Whether a verb takes a complement or not depends on the properties of the verb. Verbs (transitive or intransitive) select different kinds of complements. Examples (p. 141): 1. Put and give take both an NP and a PP complement: She put the milk in the refrigerator. 2. Sleep can not take an NP complement: Michael slept. 3. Think selects a sentence complement, often preceded by a complementizer that: I think that Sam won the race. See other examples on p. 141.
6C-selection (詞類選擇) p. 542 C-selection: The classifying of verbs and other lexical items in terms ofthe syntactic category of the complements that they accept;sometimes called “subcategorization”Example:The verb find c-selects a noun phrase complement.p. 141The information about the complement types selected byparticular verbs and other lexical items is called c-selectionor subcategorization and is included in the lexical entry ofitem in our mental lexicon.** “C” stands for “categorial”.
7More examples p. 141 Verbs select different kinds of complements: (a) Put selects both an NP and a PP.Sam put the milk in the refrigerator.(b) Sleep can not take an NP complement.* Michael slept a fish.(c) Think selects a sentence as complement.I think that Sam won the race.(d) Tell selects an NP and an S as complement.I told Sam that Michael was on his bicycle.
8(e) Feel selects either an AdjP or an S. They felt strong as oxen.They feel that they can win.(f) Belief selects either a PP or an S.There was a belief in freedom of speech.Everybody learns the belief that freedom ofspeech is a basic right.(g) Tired selects a PP.I am tired of stale sandwiches.(h) Sympathy selects a PP.They showed their sympathy for the victims.
9S-selection (語意選擇) p. 561 S-selection: The classifying of verbs and other lexical items interms of the semantic category of the head and thecomplements that they accept.Example:The verb find s-selects an animate subject and aconcrete NP complement.** “S” stands for “semantic”.
10Examples (a) Murder requires its subject and object to be human. (b) Drink requires its subject to be animate and itsobject liquid.(c) Like/hate selects animate subjects.! The rock murdered the man.! The beer drank the student.! The tree liked the boy.
11p. 142The well-formedness of a phrase dependson at least two factors:Whether the phrase conforms to the phrase structure requirements, andWhether the phrase conforms to the selectional requirements of the head.
12What heads the sentence? ppThe category Aux is a natural category to head S.Reasons:(1) A sentence is about a situation or state of affairs that occurs at some point in time.(2) Aux specifies a time frame for the sentence, whether the situation described by the sentence will take place, already took place, or is taking place now.
13S NP VP The boy Aux VP is eating may eat has eaten
14In the tree above, VP is the complement to Aux In the tree above, VP is the complement to Aux. The selectional relationship: 1. The Aux be (is) takes a progressive form (V-ing) of the verb. 2. The Aux has selects a past participle (-en) form of the verb. 3. The modal Aux (may) selects the infinitival form (不定詞; the root form; 動詞原形) of the verb
15X-bar theoryp. 565 Definition: a universal schema specifying that the internal organization of all phrasal categories can be broken into three levels, e.g., NP, N’, and N
16The basic X-bar schema is as follows: XP specifier X’ X (head) complementThis schema says that an XP consists of a specifierand an X’ and that any X’ consists of an X and acomplement.
17p. 143 specifier: an optional modifier Examples: 1 p. 143 specifier: an optional modifier Examples: 1. An NP specifier: a determiner 2. A VP specifier: an adverb (never, often) 3. An AdjP specifier: a degree word (very, quite)
18A new ruleVP → Aux VP (This allows recursion.) VP Aux VP
19The schema above represents the following sentences: 1 The schema above represents the following sentences: 1. The child may be sleeping. 2. The dog has been barking. 3. The bird must have been flying.
20When a sentence does not have a modal, there is a time reference for it. S NP VP N’ Aux VP N Past kicked the ball Sam
21The matchmaker function of syntactic rules p. 145 Aux specifies the agreement features of the subject. Examples: 1. If the subject is we, Aux carries the features first-person plural. 2. If the subject is he or she, Aux carries the features third-person singular.
22Structural ambiguities An ambiguous sentence has more than one structure tree, each corresponding to a different meaning. See the example on p. 146: The boy saw the man with the telescope.
23A new version of the PS rules in English p S → NP VP 2. NP → Det N’ 3. NP → N’ 4. NP → NP’s N’ 5. NP → NP PP 6. N’ → Adj N’ 7. N’ → N 8. VP → V
249. VP → V NP 10. VP → V CP 11. VP → Aux VP 12. VP → VP PP 13. PP → P NP14. CP → C S
25More phrase structure trees (pp More phrase structure trees (pp ) The dog completely destroyed the house.SNP VPDet N’ Adv VPThe N completely V NPdog destroyed Det N’the Nhouse→PPT 32
26The dog destroyed the house yesterday. NP VPDet N’ VP AdvThe N V NP yesterdaydog destroyed Det N’the Nhouse
27Probably the dog has fleas. (** Probably as sentential modifier) Adv SProbably NP VPDet N’ V NPthe N has N’dog Nfleas
28Coordinate structure (pp. 148-149) the dog and the catNPNP CoordPDet N’ Coord NP2The N and Det N’dog the Ncat
29Michael writes poetry and surfs. NP VPN’ VP CoordPN V NP Coord VP2Michael writes N’ and VN surfspoetry
30Main verb be (The main verb be acts like the modal and the auxiliaries be and have.) The cat is coy.TPNP T’Det N’ T AdjPthe N is Adjcat coy
31Draw PS trees for: 1. The cat is a feline. 2. The cat is in the tree.
32More new rules (pp )For PPT pp : 1. S → Adv S 2. VP → Adv VP 3. VP → VP Adv For PPT pp : 1. NP → NP CoordP 2. CoordP → Coord NP For PPT pp. 30: 1.TP→ NP T’ 2. T’ → T XP (where XP = AdjP, PP, NP)