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Syntax Lecture 13: Revision. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) – Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) – Adjunct.

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Presentation on theme: "Syntax Lecture 13: Revision. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) – Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) – Adjunct."— Presentation transcript:

1 Syntax Lecture 13: Revision

2 Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) – Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

3 Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

4 Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

5 Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to XP: adjunct = YP (Y 2 )

6 Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to X’: adjunct = YP

7 Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to X: adjunct = Y

8 Lecture 1: X-bar Theory DP analysis: an example – Determiner is the head of the nominal phrase – NP is complement – Possessor is specifier

9 Lecture 1: X-bar theory 1)A: the sister of the head is the specifier B: the mother of the head is X’ aA is true and B is false bA is false and B is true cA and B are false dA and B are true

10 Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation Binary features – [±F]functional vs. thematic – [±N]nounlike vs. not nounlike – [±V]verblike vs. not verblike

11 Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation [-F] categories – [+N, -V]nounN – [-N, +V]verbV – [+N, +V]adjective/adverbA – [-N, -V]prepositionP [+F] categories – [+N, -V]determinerD – [-N, +V]inflectionI – [+N, +V]degree adverbDeg – [-N, -V]complementiserC

12 Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation Subcategories of [-F] categories determine what arguments a head selects – DP, PP, CP, , etc. – E.g. write [ DP a letter] smile fact [ CP that the world is round] out [ PP from the cupboard] certain [ CP that I am right]

13 Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation All [+F] categories have only one type of complement: – D– NP – I– VP – C– IP – Deg– AP

14 Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation 2)Which categories are [+N, +V]? aNouns and adjectives/adverbs bNouns and determiners cAdjectives/adverbs and prepositions dAdjectives/adverbs and degree adverbs

15 Lecture 3: The Subject The subject is odd – It can be an argument of the verb But it isn’t in the VP – It can be meaningless – It can be underlyingly empty and moved into E.g. passive

16 Lecture 3: The Subject We also find VPs with subjects – He made [ VP the ice melt] So there are two subject positions – but only one subject

17 Lecture 3: The Subject Solution – Subject originates inside VP D-structure – Moves to specifier of IP S-structure

18 Lecture 3: The Subject 3)What is in the specifier of an active IP at S- structure aNothing bThe subject cThe object dThe VP

19 Lecture 4: The complementiser system The complementiser heads a CP – Different forces Declarative (that/for) Interrogative (if) The IP is its complement – Different complements Finite (that/if) Infinitive (for) Wh-phrases move to its specifier

20 Lecture 4: The complementiser system 4)What is the complementiser of the underlined CP in the following? I wonder [ CP whether he knows] aA phonologically empty complementiser bThere is no complementiser cWhether dIf

21 Lecture 5:Wh-movement Wh-phrases move for semantic reasons – A CP with a wh-phrase in spec is interrogative – A CP without a wh-phrase in spec (and no interrogative head) is declarative But not all wh-clauses are interrogative – Relative clauses involve wh-movement – The relative wh-phrase moves to enable to clause to be interpreted as a modifier – So, all wh-movement is semantically motivated

22 Lecture 5:Wh-movement Restrictive relative clauses – Wh-relative The man [ CP who you dislike] – that-relative The man [ CP that you dislike] – zero relative The man [ CP you dislike] – All involve wh-movement The wh-phrase is covert in that and zero relatives

23 Lecture 5:Wh-movement 5)What is in the specifier of CP of a restrictive relative clause which is introduced by an overt complementiser? aNothing bAn overt wh-phrase cA covert wh-phrase dthat

24 Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects There are two types of infinitival clause which appear to lack a subject – John seems [ -- to be rich] – John wants [ -- to be rich] They look the same, but they are not.

25 Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects Raising verbs – lack their own subjects – can take infinitival complements, – the subject moves to the subject of the raising verb

26 Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects Control verbs – have their own subjects – can take infinitival complements, – the subject is a covert pronoun which refers to the subject of the control verb

27 Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects 6)In the following structure, if V is a control verb, what will be in ‘—’ at S-structure? [ – may V [ John is rich]] aA meaningless element (it) bJohn cPRO dThe verb’s own subject argument

28 Lecture 7: Verb positions They are in V when – I is a free morpheme – I is a bound morpheme, but the verb cannot move In negative contexts In inversion contexts where the subject stays in spec IP They are in I when – I is a bound morpheme and the verb can move They are in C when – I is a bound morpheme – I to C movement (inversion) is necessary – The subject moves to spec CP

29 Lecture 7: Verb positions When a verb moves to support a bound morpheme, it adjoins to the morpheme

30 Lecture 7: Verb positions 7)In a main clause with the following D- structure, what will be in C at S-structure? [ CP - [ IP -- -ed [ VP John see who]]] adid bsaw cthat dwho

31 Lecture 8: Verb types 1 Causatives – They made the ice melt Overt free causative verb Lexical verb does not move – They melted the ice Covert bound causative verb lexical verb moves to support it

32 Lecture 8: Verb types 1 Transitives – John may throw Bill Theme is specifier of throw Agent is specifier of covert bound agentive verb (= do) Lexical verb moves to support agentive verb Agent moves to subject position Passives – Bill may be thrown Theme is specifier of throw Passive morpheme replaces agentive verb, so no agent Lexical verb moves to support passive morpheme Theme moves to subject position

33 Lecture 8: Verb types 1 8)In which of the following sentences is there a covert verb bound by the lexical verb? aHe was killed bThey made him walk cI saved him dThe ice melted

34 Lecture 9: verb types 2 Unergative verbs – Take cognate objects – Can’t appear in there and locative inversion constructions – Have an agent argument

35 Lecture 9: verb types 2 Unaccusative verbs – Can’t take a cognate object – Can appear in there and locative inversion structures – Have a theme argument

36 Lecture 9: verb types 2 9)If V is an unaccusative verb, which of the following sentences will be ungrammatical? aHe V-ed a cunning V bThere V-ed a letter cIn the post V-ed a letter dThe letter V-ed

37 Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs The aspectual morphemes (-ing, -en) are heads of VPs Main verbs can support only one overt bound morpheme All other morphemes have to be supported by a dummy auxiliary (do, have and be) – Do is used when the following verbal head is a thematic verb – Have is used when the following head is perfect (-en) – Be is used in all other cases

38 Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs 10)In a sentence containing the following sequence of bound morphemes, which one will be supported by be? tense – perfect - progressive aTense bPerfect cProgressive dNone of them

39 Lecture 11: the DP Empty determiners with proper nouns and bare plurals – [ DP  John], [ DP  men] Post determiners are APs in specifier of NP – [ DP the [ NP [ AP very few] complaints] Pre-determiners are determiners preceding an abstract ‘group noun’ for which of does not have to appear – [ DP all [ NP members of [ DP the committee]]] – [ DP all [ NP  (of) [ DP the crowd]]]

40 Lecture 11: the DP 11)Which of the following DPs does not involve an abstract group noun? aVery few of the men bBoth the men cAll men dSome of the men

41 Lecture 12: adjectival phrases Adjectival phrases are headed by a degree adverb (so they are DegPs) DegPs have measure phrases in their specifiers and APs in their complements – [ DegP [two sandwiches] [ Deg’ too [ AP short of a picnic]]] APs have extent phrases (very) in their specifiers and PPs, CPs or nothing in their complements – So [ AP very [ A’ small [ PP for a giant]]] Deg can be free (too, as, so, etc.) or bound (-er, - est) – In the latter case the adjective moves to bind the Deg

42 Lecture 12: adjectival phrases 12)In which of the following DegPs is the specifier of AP filled? areally very funny balmost too wide cso bright dbetter than the rest

43 Answers 1=b 2=d 3=b 4=a 5=c 6=d 7=a 8=c 9=a 10=b 11=c 12=a 0-6 = 1 7 =2 8=3 9-10= =5


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