# Syntax Lecture 13: Revision. Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) – Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) – Adjunct.

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Syntax Lecture 13: Revision

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X 1  X 0 Y 2 ) – Specifier (X 2  Y 2 X 1 ) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to XP: adjunct = YP (Y 2 )

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to X’: adjunct = YP

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory X-bar rules for introducing: – Complement (X’  X YP) – Specifier (XP  YP X’) – Adjunct (X n  X n, Y m ) if n = 0, m = 0; 2 otherwise Adjunction to X: adjunct = Y

Lecture 1: X-bar Theory DP analysis: an example – Determiner is the head of the nominal phrase – NP is complement – Possessor is specifier

Lecture 1: X-bar theory 1)A: the sister of the head is the specifier B: the mother of the head is X’ aA is true and B is false bA is false and B is true cA and B are false dA and B are true

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation Binary features – [±F]functional vs. thematic – [±N]nounlike vs. not nounlike – [±V]verblike vs. not verblike

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation [-F] categories – [+N, -V]nounN – [-N, +V]verbV – [+N, +V]adjective/adverbA – [-N, -V]prepositionP [+F] categories – [+N, -V]determinerD – [-N, +V]inflectionI – [+N, +V]degree adverbDeg – [-N, -V]complementiserC

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation Subcategories of [-F] categories determine what arguments a head selects – DP, PP, CP, , etc. – E.g. write [ DP a letter] smile fact [ CP that the world is round] out [ PP from the cupboard] certain [ CP that I am right]

Lecture 2: Categories and Subcategorisation All [+F] categories have only one type of complement: – D– NP – I– VP – C– IP – Deg– AP

Lecture 3: The Subject The subject is odd – It can be an argument of the verb But it isn’t in the VP – It can be meaningless – It can be underlyingly empty and moved into E.g. passive

Lecture 3: The Subject We also find VPs with subjects – He made [ VP the ice melt] So there are two subject positions – but only one subject

Lecture 3: The Subject Solution – Subject originates inside VP D-structure – Moves to specifier of IP S-structure

Lecture 3: The Subject 3)What is in the specifier of an active IP at S- structure aNothing bThe subject cThe object dThe VP

Lecture 4: The complementiser system The complementiser heads a CP – Different forces Declarative (that/for) Interrogative (if) The IP is its complement – Different complements Finite (that/if) Infinitive (for) Wh-phrases move to its specifier

Lecture 4: The complementiser system 4)What is the complementiser of the underlined CP in the following? I wonder [ CP whether he knows] aA phonologically empty complementiser bThere is no complementiser cWhether dIf

Lecture 5:Wh-movement Wh-phrases move for semantic reasons – A CP with a wh-phrase in spec is interrogative – A CP without a wh-phrase in spec (and no interrogative head) is declarative But not all wh-clauses are interrogative – Relative clauses involve wh-movement – The relative wh-phrase moves to enable to clause to be interpreted as a modifier – So, all wh-movement is semantically motivated

Lecture 5:Wh-movement Restrictive relative clauses – Wh-relative The man [ CP who you dislike] – that-relative The man [ CP that you dislike] – zero relative The man [ CP you dislike] – All involve wh-movement The wh-phrase is covert in that and zero relatives

Lecture 5:Wh-movement 5)What is in the specifier of CP of a restrictive relative clause which is introduced by an overt complementiser? aNothing bAn overt wh-phrase cA covert wh-phrase dthat

Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects There are two types of infinitival clause which appear to lack a subject – John seems [ -- to be rich] – John wants [ -- to be rich] They look the same, but they are not.

Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects Raising verbs – lack their own subjects – can take infinitival complements, – the subject moves to the subject of the raising verb

Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects Control verbs – have their own subjects – can take infinitival complements, – the subject is a covert pronoun which refers to the subject of the control verb

Lecture 6: non-finite clause subjects 6)In the following structure, if V is a control verb, what will be in ‘—’ at S-structure? [ – may V [ John is rich]] aA meaningless element (it) bJohn cPRO dThe verb’s own subject argument

Lecture 7: Verb positions They are in V when – I is a free morpheme – I is a bound morpheme, but the verb cannot move In negative contexts In inversion contexts where the subject stays in spec IP They are in I when – I is a bound morpheme and the verb can move They are in C when – I is a bound morpheme – I to C movement (inversion) is necessary – The subject moves to spec CP

Lecture 7: Verb positions When a verb moves to support a bound morpheme, it adjoins to the morpheme

Lecture 7: Verb positions 7)In a main clause with the following D- structure, what will be in C at S-structure? [ CP - [ IP -- -ed [ VP John see who]]] adid bsaw cthat dwho

Lecture 8: Verb types 1 Causatives – They made the ice melt Overt free causative verb Lexical verb does not move – They melted the ice Covert bound causative verb lexical verb moves to support it

Lecture 8: Verb types 1 Transitives – John may throw Bill Theme is specifier of throw Agent is specifier of covert bound agentive verb (= do) Lexical verb moves to support agentive verb Agent moves to subject position Passives – Bill may be thrown Theme is specifier of throw Passive morpheme replaces agentive verb, so no agent Lexical verb moves to support passive morpheme Theme moves to subject position

Lecture 8: Verb types 1 8)In which of the following sentences is there a covert verb bound by the lexical verb? aHe was killed bThey made him walk cI saved him dThe ice melted

Lecture 9: verb types 2 Unergative verbs – Take cognate objects – Can’t appear in there and locative inversion constructions – Have an agent argument

Lecture 9: verb types 2 Unaccusative verbs – Can’t take a cognate object – Can appear in there and locative inversion structures – Have a theme argument

Lecture 9: verb types 2 9)If V is an unaccusative verb, which of the following sentences will be ungrammatical? aHe V-ed a cunning V bThere V-ed a letter cIn the post V-ed a letter dThe letter V-ed

Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs The aspectual morphemes (-ing, -en) are heads of VPs Main verbs can support only one overt bound morpheme All other morphemes have to be supported by a dummy auxiliary (do, have and be) – Do is used when the following verbal head is a thematic verb – Have is used when the following head is perfect (-en) – Be is used in all other cases

Lecture 10: auxiliary verbs 10)In a sentence containing the following sequence of bound morphemes, which one will be supported by be? tense – perfect - progressive aTense bPerfect cProgressive dNone of them

Lecture 11: the DP Empty determiners with proper nouns and bare plurals – [ DP  John], [ DP  men] Post determiners are APs in specifier of NP – [ DP the [ NP [ AP very few] complaints] Pre-determiners are determiners preceding an abstract ‘group noun’ for which of does not have to appear – [ DP all [ NP members of [ DP the committee]]] – [ DP all [ NP  (of) [ DP the crowd]]]

Lecture 11: the DP 11)Which of the following DPs does not involve an abstract group noun? aVery few of the men bBoth the men cAll men dSome of the men

Lecture 12: adjectival phrases Adjectival phrases are headed by a degree adverb (so they are DegPs) DegPs have measure phrases in their specifiers and APs in their complements – [ DegP [two sandwiches] [ Deg’ too [ AP short of a picnic]]] APs have extent phrases (very) in their specifiers and PPs, CPs or nothing in their complements – So [ AP very [ A’ small [ PP for a giant]]] Deg can be free (too, as, so, etc.) or bound (-er, - est) – In the latter case the adjective moves to bind the Deg

Lecture 12: adjectival phrases 12)In which of the following DegPs is the specifier of AP filled? areally very funny balmost too wide cso bright dbetter than the rest

Answers 1=b 2=d 3=b 4=a 5=c 6=d 7=a 8=c 9=a 10=b 11=c 12=a 0-6 = 1 7 =2 8=3 9-10=4 11-12=5

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