Presentation on theme: "What were the most important achievements of the Mesopotamian empires"— Presentation transcript:
1What were the most important achievements of the Mesopotamian empires What were the most important achievements of the Mesopotamian empires? Chapter 6 (pages 55-63)
2DefinitionsEmpire- a large territory in which several groups of people are ruled by a single leader or governmentCapital- a city that is the center of governmentTribute- wealth sent from one country or ruler to another as a sign that the other is superiorCode of Laws-a collection of written rules and lawsEconomy- the way a region or country uses resources to produce and sell or trade goods and services to meet people’s needs and wantsSiege-a military blockage and attack on a city to force it to surrender
3Section 2- The Akkadian Empire (page 56) King Sargon created the world’s first empire.The Akkadians developed their own language.Artists carved beautiful relief sculptures on stones.They came from northern MesopotamiaKing Sargon was both a strong king and a skilled general. He built his empire through effective military strategies. He assembled a large armyKing Sargon used cleaver political strategies
4Achievement drawing goes HERE!! PREVIEWIn ancient Mesopotamia,rulers recorded their greatestachievements on steles. Astele(STEE-lee) is a stone slab on whichan illustration orinscription has been carved.Complete the two steles atright to celebrate two of your mostimportant personal achievements.Draw pictures or find photographsof images or symbols to representeach achievement.Achievement drawing goes HERE!!
56.1- Introduction (page 55)Ancient Sumer flourished in Mesopotamia between 3500 and 2300 B.C.E. In this chapter, you will discover what happened to the Sumerians and who ruled Mesopotamia after them.The city-states of ancient Sumer were like small independent countries. They often fought over land and water rights. They united into one group. Their lack of unity left them open to attacks by stronger groups.About 2300 B.C.E., the Akkadians (uh-KAY-dee-unz) conquered Sumer. This group made the Sumerian city-states a part of an empire. An empire is a large territory where groups of people are ruled by a single leader or government . Groups like the Akkadians first conquer and then rule other lands.In this chapter, you will learn about four empires that rose up in Mesopotamia between 2300 and 539 B.C.E. They were the Akkadian Empire, the Babylonian (bay-buh-LOH-nyuhn) Empire, the Babylonian Empire, the Assyrian (uh-SIR-ee-un) Empire, and the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
6Section 3- Life Under Akkadian Rule (page 57) Sargon ruled his empire for 56 yearsHe made the city of Agade, in the northern part of Mesopotamia, the empires capitalThe Akkadians farmed using the Sumerian irrigation techniquesThe Akkadians created their own language, religion, and artsOver time, the Akkadian language replaced the Sumerian languageIn art, they were known for their skillful three-dimensional sculptures and carving sculpturesSargon had hoped that his empire would last for a thousand years. But later kings found it difficult to rule such a large territory. The empire grew weak. After about 200 years, the Akkadian Empire fell to new invaders from the north
71. Around what year did the Akkadians conquer the Sumerian city-states 1. Around what year did the Akkadians conquer the Sumerian city-states? Who was their first leader?Sargon led the Akkadians to conquer the Sumerian city-states around 2300 B.C.E.2. In the stele to the right, draw and label pictures to illustrate the military achievements of the Akkadian Empire.Tell me what you drew.Then complete these sentences:This stele represents the Akkadian militaryachievement of Creating an empire through military strategies and smart political strategies.This achievement was important because . . It ended the fighting between small city-states, and it helped create the world’s first empire.One of their greatest achievements was being the first empire
81. In the stele to the right, draw and label pictures to illustrate the cultural achievements of the Akkadian Empire. Then complete these sentences: Tell me what you drew.This stele represents the Akkadian cultural achievement of Sculpting stelesThis achievement was important because . . .It has given us some glimpses of the history of the Akkadian Empire.2.How long did the Akkadian Empire last? Why did it fall? The Akkadian empire lasted for about 200 years and fell because its king could not rule such a large empire.One of their achievements were their own culture
9Section 4- Hammurabi and the Babylonian Empire (page 58) The next ruler to unite all of Mesopotamia was a king name HammurabiHammurabi was the king of BabylonAfter conquering all of Mesopotamia, Hammurabi made Babylon the capital of his empireHammurabi is best known for his code of laws, which he wrote from 1792 to 1750 B.C.E.Hammurabi used the code of laws to unify his empire and to preserve orderHammurabi’s code was detailed. It covered many situations, such as trade, payment for work, marriage, and divorce.The code spelled out punishments for crimes, such as stealing or causing injury
101. Who was the next king to unite Mesopotamia after the fall of the Akkadian Empire, and where was his capital city?After the Akkadian empire fell, Hammurabi was the next king to unite Mesopotamia. His capital city was Babylon.2. In the stele to the right, draw and label pictures to illustrate the political achievements of the Babylonian Empire. Tell me what you drew.Then complete these sentences:This stele represents the Babylonian politicalachievement of Developing a code of laws.This achievement was important because . . .It was the first code of laws to apply to everyone.One of their achievements was a code of laws
11Section 5- Life in the Babylonian Empire (page 59) Agriculture and trade flourishedHammurabi was careful maintaining irrigation systems properly so that land remained fertile and provide plenty of foodThe city of Babylon was on the banks of the Euphrates RiverBabylonians traded with people all along the Persian GulfThey traded grain and woven cloth for wood, gold, sliver, precious gems and livestock (animals)Trade helped the empire’s economy.Many types of artisans used materials brought back from distant land
12In the stele to the right, draw and label pictures to illustrate the economic achievements of the Babylonian Empire.Tell me what you drewThen complete these sentences:This stele represents the Babylonian economicachievement of Developing Babylon as a trading center.This achievement was important because It enriched people’s lives and brought new ideas to Babylon.2. What rights did slaves and women have under Babylonian law? Slaves and women could own property and keep money their own.One of their achievements were trading
13Section 6- The Assyrian Empire (page 60) The Assyrians honored their powerful kings with beautiful palaces and huge sculpturesThey built some of the earliest aqueductsAssyria lies north of BabylonAssyria had began preparing for war after conquered the Babylonian empireTheir greatest achievement were their new weapons and war strategiesThey perfected the use of horse and iron weapons in battleThey developed new ways of attacking cities
14Where was Assyria located Where was Assyria located? Using the map in your book, describe the areas the Assyrian Empire conquered.Assyria was located north of Babylon. The Assyrians conquered the land around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers as well as Syria, Phoenicia and Egypt.2. In the stele to the right, draw and labelpictures to illustrate the military achievements of the Assyrian Empire. Tell me what you drewThen complete these sentences:This stele represents the Assyrian militaryachievement of New weapons and war strategies especially siege warfareThis achievement was important because It allowed the Assyrians to create and expand a great empire.One of their greatest achievements were their new weapons and war strategies
15Section 7- Life Under Assyrian Rule (page 61) The Assyrian empire was ruled by powerful kingsThe Assyrians believed that their kings were special so they built beautiful palacesThe Assyrians also dug a irrigation systemThey also built aqueducts, pipes or channels used to carry waterArtisans were known for their 2-dimensional sculptures called bas-reliefsEmpire lasted 300 years
16In the stele to the right, draw and label pictures to illustrate the cultural achievements of the Assyrian Empire. Tell me what you drew.Then complete these sentences:This stele represents the Assyrian culturalachievement of Bas-reliefs.This achievement was important because . . .Realism was introduced into sculpture.2. How long did the Assyrian Empire last? Why did it fall? The Assyrian Empire lasted for about 300 years and fell because the territory was too large to control.One of their achievements were the arts
17Section 8- The Neo-Babylonian Empire (page 62) King Nebuchadnezzar restored the splendor of King Hammurabi’s time.His hangings Gardens of Babylon became famousNeo means newThey built walls capable of holding waterMany structures had archesDuring peace time, bridges were used to cross the moat and enter the cityIn time of war the bridges were dismantled
18Which group of people regained control of the lands of Mesopotamia after the Assyrians? Who was their most famous king?After the Assyrians, the Babylonians regained control of Mesopotamia. Their most famous king was Nebuchadrezzar II2.In the stele to the right, draw and label pictures to illustrate the military achievements of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.Tell me what you drew.Then complete these sentences:This stele represents the Neo-Babylonian military achievement of Building protective walls and a moat around Babylon.This achievement was important because It kept Babylonians safe.
19Tell me what you drew.This stele represents the Neo-Babylonian cultural achievement of Building the Hanging Garden of Babylon.This achievement was important because. . . The gardens were an engineering masterpiece.2. The Neo-Babylonian Empire lasted only 75 years before it fell to the Persian Empire led by Cyrus.One of their achievements was the hanging gardens.
20Section 9- Life in the Neo-Babylonian Empire (page 63) Nebuchadrezzar worked hard to restore the empireHanging gardens became famousThey built a ziggurat and they called it “House of the Platform of Heaven and Earth”.The hanging gardens were planted on rooftops and tall terracesA watering system watered the plantsThey were also skilled in mathematics and astronomyThey created the first sundial, a device that uses the sun to tell time. Their discoveries lead to the 60 minute hour and 7 day week system“ The Neo-Babylonian Empire lasted only 75 years . Then, in 539 B.C.E., a new conqueror named Cyrus swept into Babylon from the east. He was a leader of the Persian Empire. The Persians came from the land we now call Iran. For about 200 years, they ruled the most powerful empire in the world. Then the Persians were conquered by a man named Alexander the Great”.
21Complete this report card to evaluate the achievements of the Mesopotamian empires you studied. Follow these steps:• Evaluate each empire’s achievements by giving it a letter grade—A, B, C, D, orF—for each category.• In the comments section, give evidence to support each letter grade youassigned.
22This is YOUR opinion!! Report Card for the Mesopotamian Empires Akkadian EmpireBabylonian EmpireAssyrian EmpireNeo-Babylonian EmpireMilitary and Political AchievementsGrade:Comments:Economic and Cultural AchievementsThis is YOUR opinion!!
23Chapter SummaryIn this chapter, you read about the most important achievements of the four empires that once ruled MesopotamiaThe Akkadian Empire- King Sargon created the worlds first empire. The Akkadians developed their own language. Artists carved beautiful relief sculptures on stoneThe Babylonian Empire- King Hammurabi created a code of laws that applied to everyone in the empire. Babylonian agriculture and trade thrived under his ruleThe Assyrian Empire- The Assyrians honored their powerful king with beautiful palaces and huge sculptures. They built some of the earliest aqueducts.The Neo-Babylonian Empire- King Nebuchadrezzar restored the splendor of king Hammurabi’s time. His Hanging Gardens of Babylon became famous.