Presentation on theme: "Colonial soldiers Losses The Spanish Flu The East Africa Campaign The Middle East World War I in the Non-European World."— Presentation transcript:
Colonial soldiers Losses The Spanish Flu The East Africa Campaign The Middle East World War I in the Non-European World
Colonial soldiers The British kept a peacetime army of 247,432 regular troops They were well prepared and feared The British had learned lessons fighting against the Boers in Africa Almost 9,000,000 colonial soldiers were conscripted (the draft) A million and a half came from India—all ethnicities: Sikhs, Pakistani Muslims Others came from Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica They were given indigenous uniforms and led by an ethnical “national”
Colonial Military Losses British losses: 35,700 (Tanzania, Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, etc.) French losses: 82,000 (Morocco, Niger, Vietnam [12,000], etc.) German losses: 17,000 (Cameroon, Togo, Namibia) Total losses in the war: around 1,000,000 military deaths Civilian losses: around 2,000,000 (disease and Spanish flu)
The Spanish Flu Outbreak in 1918, spread even to the Arctic and remote Pacific islands Most victims were young healthy adults This flu is run by a cytokine storm—the immune system goes into overdrive, is uncontrolled by the body, and attacks itself First observed in Kansas in March 1918 Between 2 and 5% of the human population was killed from it, and roughly 20% of the world suffered from this flu to some extent Not caused by WWI, but spread easier in the trenches, troop movements, and close military quarters Modern transportation increased worldwide travel, further spreading the disease
The Spanish Flu, documents I had a little bird, Its name was Enza, I opened the window, And in-flew-enza. - American Skipping Rhyme circa 1918 Obey the laws And wear the gauze. Protect your jaws From septic paws. Street car conductor in Seattle not allowing passengers aboard without a mask in 1918.
American Red Cross nurses tending to flu patients, 1918.
German East Africa Campaign British and German forces fought each other in today’s Tanzania, Rwanda, and neighboring countries For every soldier killed, 30 died of disease Memory focuses on the Western front, but a great price was paid in this war area Estimated 100,000 black Africans were killed (no official numbers kept)
The Middle East The Battle of Mecca 1916 Resulted in the end of the Ottoman Empire, European domination in the area, the ultimate creation of Israel Marks the end of the realization of an Arab nation dream Nationalistic tendencies and bitterness around this time still run strong—see document handout from Jordanian web site.