Presentation on theme: "19.3 Americans on the European Front. The U.S. army only numbered about 100,000 poorly trained men. U.S. not ready. Gen. John J. Pershing was given command."— Presentation transcript:
The U.S. army only numbered about 100,000 poorly trained men. U.S. not ready. Gen. John J. Pershing was given command of the American forces.
Preparing for War Congress was giving the allies naval support, supplies, and $3bil in loans. The first 14,500 men served mainly to boost Allied morale. Pershing recommended the army reach 1 million men.
Congress instituted a draft of young men with the selective service act. By Nov 1918 more than 24mill had registered. 3 million would be chosen by lottery. American troops were the American Expeditionary Force (AEF).
Soldiers had to be taught how to use a bayonet, gas mask, did a trench, throw a grenade, etc- sometimes training was hurried. Allied ships, in 1917, started traveling in convoys to prevent u- boat attacks. By December 1917, allied losses dropped by half due to u-boats.
Pershing kept his men separate from the Allied armies, did not want them to get accustomed to defensive attacks. Members of the AEF were called doughboys. More than 300,000 African Americans served, most were given menial tasks or manual labor.
Marines refused Africans for service. A group of African Americans called the Harlem Hell Fighters fought with distinction for the French.
Turning the Tide of War Russia exited the war in 1918 when Vladimir Lenin and his Bolsheviks took over. Germany helped him return to Russia. Now Germany could concentrate specifically on the West (France).
250,000 new Americans were arriving in France each month. General Von Ludendorff sensed the end and began to ask the Kaiser to surrender. Allies insisted on total surrender. WWI saw the first use of planes and tanks in war time.
Ending the War Germany’s allies began making deals with the Allies. German navy began to mutiny. Nov 10, 1918 Kaiser fled to Holand. German civilian representative signed the armistice on Nov 11, 1918.
Results of the War 50,000 American soldiers died. European death toll was about 8 million (5,000 a day. Physical and mental scars ran deep. Doctors treated “trench foot” with amputation.