Presentation on theme: "The Big Picture: At the end of the nineteenth century, global competition for empire led the United States into war against Spain and into military conflicts."— Presentation transcript:
The Big Picture: At the end of the nineteenth century, global competition for empire led the United States into war against Spain and into military conflicts in Mexico. The United States had forged a new role as a world power. CHAPTER 17: ENTERING THE WORLD STAGE
Main Idea: The United States entered the imperialist competition late, but it soon extended its power and influence in the Pacific region. CHAPTER 17 SECTION 1: THE LURE OF IMPERIALISM
Imperialist Activity Imperialism: Extension of a nation’s power over other lands. Europe was the first to embrace imperialistic attitude, US followed close behind. Reasons for Imperialism: Industrial revolution led to economic prosperity and the need to find new markets for their manufactured goods and new raw materials. Industrialized nations had developed strong navies but navies needed somewhere abroad to refuel and make repairs, sought strategic locations to do this. Increased nationalism led to desire to take over other countries to demonstrate nation’s power and prestige. Industrialized nation’s felt that they were culturally superior (Christianity, democracy, westernized culture) to still developing nations and those nation’s needed to be “civilized.”
Taking Control of Hawaii Hawaii was in a strategic location 2,000 miles off the coast of California. American’s established Sugarcane farms in Hawaii, however, due to disease there were not enough Hawaiians to work the farms therefore the farmers brought in workers from China, Japan, and the Philippines. The more money farmers made the more control they wanted over Hawaii. The American business leaders, plantation owners, and traders formed a union called the Hawaiian League that collaborated to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy and establish American democracy in Hawaii. Bayonet Constitution: Severely restricted the power of the King of Hawaii, deprived most Hawaiians of the right to vote, and established Pearl Harbor as an American port.
Taking Control of Hawaii Queen Liliuokalani became queen in 1891, she wanted to take back control of Hawaii and do away with the Bayonet Constitution. American business leaders sought to overthrow her and annex Hawaii to the United States. US Marines stormed the royal palace and forced the queen to surrender. Sanford B. Dole became president of the newly established Republic of Hawaii while Congress considered a treaty to annex the islands. Hawaii did not become annexed until President McKinley took office, President Cleveland did not approve of the tactics used to gain control. Hawaii did not officially become a state until 1959.
Influence in China China had remained isolated from the rest of the world until 1842 when they opened 5 ports to allow British trade. From then on the Chinese tried to limit Western influence within China. Sphere of Influence: Geographic area where an outside nation exerts special economic or political control. United States was too late to claim its own sphere of influence. Open Door Policy was suggested by Secretary of State John Hay to give all nations equal trading rights in China. Some Chinese did not like the Western nations influence in China and formed a rebel group, known as the Boxers, that attacked foreign missionaries. Led the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 in Beijing to combat the Western influence, led to an increase in support for Open Door Policy because Western nations would have to stick together in order to exploit trading opportunities in China.
Influence in Japan Similarly to China, Japan had shut itself off from outside influence until the mid 1800s. Matthew Perry of the US Navy showed Japan the American naval power and Japan knew it could not stand up against such a power or maintain its isolation. Japan inspired by the influence of the American navy began rapidly industrializing and building a strong military to combat attacks. Japan also wanted to become an imperialistic power. Russo-Japanese War broke out in 1904 over the imperialistic right to influence in Korea and the Chinese province of Manchuria. President Theodore Roosevelt helped organize a peace treaty between the two nations, America’s influence abroad was increasing.
Main Idea: A quick victory in the Spanish American war gave the United States a new role as a world power. CHAPTER 17 SECTION 2: THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
Simmering Unrest in Cuba By the 1890s there were only two remaining Spanish colonies in the Western hemisphere – Cuba and Puerto Rico. Cuba wanted to fight for its freedom against Spanish rule. Spanish generals forced Cuban civilians into camps to keep them from supporting the rebel forces. Americans were shocked by the treatment of the Cuban civilians by the Spanish.
American’s Get War Fever There was no radio, internet, or television. People got their news mostly from newspapers. Two major newspapers were the New York Journal run by Randolph Hearst and the New York World led by Joseph Pulitzer. Used shocking illustrations and told scandalous to catch the attention of their readers called Yellow Journalism. These Newspapers told stories ONLY from the Cuban perspective, very biased. Wanted the US to intervene on the side of Cuba.
The New York Journal printed a letter from Enrique Dupuy de Lome that insulted President McKinley calling him “weak” Americans called for War. American battleship USS Maine mysteriously blew up in a harbor in Havana killing 260 soldiers. American newspapers began calling for War against Spain, blaming them for the explosion. America declares war on Spain Spanish-American War begins.
War in the Philippines Spanish American War was fought on two fronts: Philippines and in Cuba. Theodore Roosevelt (assistant secretary of the Navy) sent secret orders to US Navy in the Philippine's that if we went to war with Spanish that he should attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippine’s. American’s defeated the Spanish fleet in the Philippine’s and took over the islands.
War in Cuba Teller Amendment: When Cuba freed itself from Spanish rule the US would recognize Cuba as an independent country and “leave the government and control of the Island to it’s people.” Theodore Roosevelt organized a group of fighters made up of college athletes, cowboys, ranchers, and miners called the Rough Riders. Americans wanted to seize the Cuban city of Santiago, needed to control the hills around the city. Battle of San Juan Hill allowed the American forces to control Santiago. Two weeks later the Spanish troops in Cuba surrendered.
Consequences of the War Spanish had to give up all claims to Cuba, give Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the US. In exchange the US would pay the Spanish $20 million. US now became a competitive imperial power.
Annexing the Philippine’s Some people believed that we should annex the Philippines and that imperialism made the US stronger and benefited the people of the imperialized country. Reasons for imperialism: Spread American values. Navy ports Reasons against imperialism: Violates American ideal of self-government. Immigration concerns. America eventually decided to annex the Philippine’s in 1899 with the goal of preparing the islands for independence. Filipino’s were unhappy. Philippine’s eventually gained independence in 1946.
Main idea: The United States began to exert its influence over Latin America in the wake of the Spanish-American war. CHAPTER 17 SECTION 3: ROOSEVELT AND LATIN AMERICA
Cuba and Puerto Rico To restore order to in Cuba and Puerto Rico after the Spanish American War the United States set up military governments on each island. America had promised that it would not annex Cuba, however, America was fearful that other imperialist nations would attempt to in order to advance their business interests there. Platt Amendment: Limited Cuba’s ability to sign treaties with other nations and gave the United State the ability to intervene in Cuban affairs. Also required Cuba to sell or lease land to the United States for naval and fueling stations Led to establishment of Guantanamo Bay. Under the Platt Amendment Cuba became a US protectorate, or a country under the protection of another country. America did not make Puerto Rico a protectorate, it ruled it as a territory (like the Philippines). Foraker Act: established the United States would appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and upper house of legislature. A law passed in 1917 allowed Puerto Ricans to be United States citizens.
The Panama Canal In the 1880s a French company began a project to allow ships to pass through between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans without having to go all the way around South America Panama Canal When the French company went bankrupt the American government bought the rights to build the canal and started negotiations with the Colombian government to gain use of the land for the canal. Theodore Roosevelt very supportive of the canal. Panamian revolutionaries are attempting to break free of Colombian rule. Roosevelt supports revolution. The Republic of Panama is established. Panama grants US right to land to build the canal. Canal workers were plagued by malaria from mosquitos. Building the canal was not easy and resulted in a lot of injuries and deaths. In August 1914 the first ship was able to pass through the Panama Canal.
Roosevelt Corollary After the Spanish American War presidents began to back up the Monroe Doctrine to protect American economic interests in Latin America. Europeans and Americans had invested large amounts of money in Latin America and many Latin American countries were having difficulty paying back these loans. The Dominican Republic was unable to pay back its European loans.
President Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary that stated that American forces would be used if any European country attempted to seize any Dominican territory. US took over Dominican’s customs duties to ensure Europeans were repaid. Did not ask any Latin American country’s for permission. Brought stability to the region but Latin American countries were concerned about the United States involvement in their affairs.
Dollar Diplomacy Under President Taft US influence over Latin America increased. Dollar Diplomacy: Taft’s policy of promoting American economic interests in other countries and using that economic power to achieve American policy goals. US bought out all European loans to Latin American countries. Latin American countries began to resent, or dislike, American influence in their countries.
Main Idea: American intervention in Mexico’s revolution caused strained relations between the two neighbors. CHAPTER 17 SECTION 4: WILSON AND THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION
Dictatorship Sparks a Revolution When Mexico erupted in revolution the United States was drawn into the conflict because of its economic ties with Mexico. Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico and brought order to Mexico but he jailed his opponents and did not permit freedom of the press. Investors (some American) helped to modernize Mexico quickly. Most Mexicans lived in poverty and opposition to Diaz rose.
In 1910 Diaz was up for re-election and jailed his opponent Madero and proclaimed himself the winner. Once Madero was freed from jail he fled to Texas and called for a revolution against Diaz. The Mexican Revolution began as bands of rebels attempted to return Mexican lands to the natives. Diaz resigned and fled to France in 1911. Madero was elected President in 1911, but was soon overwhelmed by the same forces he had unleashed to claim power. Huerta, his commander of the military, had Madero executed and claimed the Presidency. Mexico could not agree on who should hold power.
The United States Intervenes European nations recognized Huerta but the United States did not. President Wilson sold arms to Huerta’s enemies hoping to oust Huerta. Tampico Incident: The USS Dolphin went ashore in Mexico and Mexican soldiers loyal to Huerta arrested the American soldiers. Wilson demanded an apology and a 21 gun salute – Mexican government refused. Wilson calls on Congress to authorize use of the armed forces against Mexico.
Battle of Veracruz: Wilson orders US Naval forces to seize the city of Veracruz to ensure that Huerta is unable to receive weapons necessary to continue his rule. Continued siege for the next six months, other countries intervened as mediators and called for Huerta’s resignation. Due to mounting pressure inside and outside Mexico Huerta resigns.
The Revolution Concludes United States supported Venustiano Carranza as the next Mexican President. Pancho Villa, who also wanted power, retaliated with violence. American forces sent to track down Pancho Villa, they were never able to find him. The Mexican Government under Carranza was able to draw up a new constitution, there was still unrest in Mexico. Mexico’s economy declined, leading many Mexican men, women, and children to immigrate to America.