Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel There has been a continuous and unbroken Jewish presence in the Land of Israel since the 17th.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel There has been a continuous and unbroken Jewish presence in the Land of Israel since the 17th."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel There has been a continuous and unbroken Jewish presence in the Land of Israel since the 17th century BCE, some 3,700 years.

2 A significant part of the nation's long history was enacted in the Land of Israel, of which the first thousand years are recorded in the Bible.

3 There, its cultural, religious and national identity was formed. Proclaim liberty in the land to all its inhabitants. Leviticus Ch. 25

4 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel and there, its physical presence has been maintained unbroken through the centuries, even after the majority was forced into exile. “Comfort ye, comfort ye, my people.”

5 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel During the many years of dispersion, the Jewish people never severed nor forgot its bond with the Land of Israel.

6 With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Jewish independence, lost two thousand years earlier, was renewed.

7 HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 17th-6th centuries BCE ~ BIBLICAL TIMES c. 17th century The Patriarchs: Tradition ascribes that Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Sara, Rebecca, Rachel and Leah – the patriarchs & matriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God - settle in the Land of Israel. c. 13th to 12th centuries: The “B’nei Yisrael” or Israelites settle the Land of Israel. The Tribes of Israel

8 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 17th-6th centuries BCE ~ BIBLICAL TIMES c BCE: Jewish Monarchy established; Saul, first king. c BCE: Jerusalem made capital of David's kingdom. Jerusalem as it appeared in King David’s time.

9 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 17th-6th centuries BCE ~ BIBLICAL TIMES c. 960 BCE: First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon. First Temple reconstruction

10 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 17th-6th centuries BCE ~ BIBLICAL TIMES c. 930 BCE: Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel. Divided Kingdom of Israel

11 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 17th-6th centuries BCE ~ BIBLICAL TIMES c. 586 BCE: Nebuchadnezzer, King of Babylon conquers Jerusalem and destroys the First Temple - the Jews are exiled to Babylon “By the waters of Babylon, there we sat and wept as we remembered Zion… If I forget, thee, O Jerusalem…” Psalm 137

12 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 17th-6th centuries BCE ~ BIBLICAL TIMES c. 530s BCE: Jews return to Israel from Babylon and start to build the Second Temple c. 517 BCE: Second Temple is completed c. 440s BCE: Ezra & Nehemia arrive in Jerusalem to strengthen the community. “All the people raised a great shout extolling the Lord because the foundation of the House of the Lord had been laid.” Ezra, 3:11

13 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 4 th – 1st centuries BCE c. 332 BCE: Alexander the Great of Macedonia takes over the Persian empire including Judea and Samaria.

14 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 4 th – 1st centuries BCE c. 200 BCE: Antiochus the Third of Syria takes control of Judea c. 175 BCE: Antiochus the Fourth strongly encourages Hellenisation among his subjects

15 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 4 th – 1st centuries BCE c BCE: Period of forced Hellenisation leads to Maccabee Rebellion “Then his son Judah, called Maccabee, rose up in his stead. And all his brethren helped him, and so did all they that held with his father, and they fought with cheerfulness the battle of Israel.” Maccabees I, 3:1 Hanukah

16 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 4 th – 1st centuries BCE c BCE: Civil war between two Maccabee brothers. They turn for help to Rome. Rome enters Judea.

17 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 4 th – 1st centuries BCE c. 40 BCE: Herod appointed king of Judea by the Romans 4 CE: Death of Herod “Now, when Jesus was born in Bethlehem in the days of Herod the king…” Matthew, 2:1 Jerusalem as it was in Herod’s reign. Model, Holy Land Hotel, Jerusalem

18 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st century CE 6 CE: Judea becomes Roman province. Romans start period of direct rule. Beginning of Zealot revolts

19 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st century CE c. 30 CE: Death of Jesus of Nazereth c. 40 CE: Paul (Saul) of Tarsus begins his mission to the Gentiles

20 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st century CE 66 CE: Outbreak of Jewish revolt against the Romans 70 CE: FALL OF JERUSALEM Second Temple as it appeared in the first century CE Model, Holy Land Hotel, Jerusalem

21 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st century CE 73 CE: Siege of Massada The last episode of the revolt, Massada, the desert fortress built up by Herod, becomes the scene of the famous mass suicide of the Zealots as reported by the Jewish historian Josephus.

22 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st century CE CE: Emperor Hadrian takes steps that will cause Jewish rebellion. Hadrian, initially quite favored by the Jews, made a number of decisions that caused a spirit of rebellion to surface among the Jews of Judea. Circumcision was outlawed and a decision was taken to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan city, despite rumors of promises that he had previously made to allow the rebuilding of the Temple by the Jews. This treachery, as it was seen, caused intense anger among the Jews.

23 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st century CE CE: Bar Kochba Rebellion This large bronze coin was minted by the Jews during the rebellion. The reverse legend says, "For the Freedom of Israel." In the year 132, the revolt breaks out under the Jewish commander Bar Kochba, but is eventually crushed. Roman estimates put the numbers of Jews killed in the rebellion in the hundreds of thousands.

24 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st century CE 135 CE: Judea renamed by the Romans Yehuda  Yehudim Judea  Judeans  Jews (English) Renamed by Romans: Philistines  Palestina The word Palestine does not appear in the Old or New Testaments. As late as the 4 th century C.E. we still find a Christian author, Epiphanius, referring to “Palestine, that is, Judea.” With the intention of obliterating the country’s historic Jewish identity, Rome renamed Judea Palestina, a name derived from the Jews’ ancient rivals, the Philistines.

25 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st century CE CE: Bar Kochba Rebellion The Romans also leveled Jerusalem and turned it into a pagan city. The Temple Mount was made into a shrine for Jupiter. Jerusalem is renamed Aelia Capitolina Hadrian/Sabina Bronze from Aelia Capitolina This coin was minted some time after Bar Kochba, in the new Roman city named Aelia Capitolina that Hadrian built on top of the ruins of Jerusalem. It features his portrait on the obverse, and his wife Sabina on the reverse.

26 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st – 7th centuries CE c. 140 CE: Lower Galilee replaces Yavneh after the disaster of the Bar Kochba revolt as the center of talmudic learning and the Rabbinical court (Sanhedrin) under the leadership of Rabbi Judah Hanasi. c. 170 CE: Beth Shearim becomes the new center of learning under Judah HaNasi.

27 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st – 7th centuries CE c. 140 to 315 CE: Jewish communities continue to exist in the Land of Israel. The Mishna is codified, and the Jerusalem Talmud is produced. Meanwhile, center of of Torah authority moves to Babylon. c. 313 CE: Constantine begins to institute anti- Jewish legislation. c CE: Byzantine rule - the Roman Empire including Jerusalem becomes Christian under Emperor Constantine The Church of The Holy Sepulchre: First built by order of the Emperor Constantine the Great, immediately following the Council of Nicaea (325 A.D.).

28 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st – 7th centuries CE c. 351 CE: ANOTHER JEWISH REVOLT AGAINST THE ROMANS IN ERETZ ISRAEL This revolt which was started in the large Jewish community of Sepphoris (Tzippori) is known as the war against Gallus, it being directed against Gallus, the Roman emperor of the east, whose harsh policies and corrupt rule brought about the rebellion.

29 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st – 7th centuries CE c CE: PROMISE TO JEWS TO REBUILD THE TEMPLE In the year 360 Emperor Julian, the last of the non-Christian emperors, came to power in the Roman empire. He showed great favor to the Jews and promised them permission to rebuild their Temple. Preparatory work was actually done. Jews started to come in large numbers to Eretz Israel and settled in Jerusalem, collecting money for the great work at hand. When Julian died in in 363, the project stopped and Christian dominance resumed. 4th century synagogue in Katzrin, Israel.

30 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st – 7th centuries CE c CE: Persians gain temporary control of Palestine. Jews temporarily return to Jerusalem For some years, the Persians had been mounting a campaign from the east to take land from the Eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire). In 614 they took control of Palestine with the active help of the Jewish population who are rewarded with the chance of returning to Jerusalem and governing it themselves which they proceed to do. But the Persians then turn against the Jews demanding that they give up the rights that they had enjoyed in Jerusalem.

31 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st – 7th centuries CE c CE: Mohammed drives the Jewish tribes from Arabia Mohammed, founder of the new faith of Islam in Arabia, initially hoped that the Jews would recognize him as their prophet and would accept his new religious ideas. However, as he saw that the Jews, despite some support for him, had not left their own faith, he started to become more aggressive towards them. After he moved the center of his new movement from Mecca to Medina, he took a more active line against the Jews and pushed some of the Jewish tribes out of the Arabian peninsula.

32 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 1st – 7th centuries CE c. 638 CE: Moslem conquest of Jerusalem. Jews allowed to return. c CE: Al Aqsa mosque and Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem The Moslem conquest of the Holy Land was an event of great significance. Under Moslem rule in Eretz Israel, Jews were allowed to return to Jerusalem.

33 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 7th through 11th centuries CE c CE: After the Arab/Muslim conquest, Eretz Israel comes under Muslim rule. A number of Jews & Christians convert to Islam. The dominant language changes from Greek & Aramaic to Arabic. The Dome of the Rock today.

34 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 11 th through 13th centuries CE c – 1291 CE: The Crusader Period For the next 200 years, the country was dominated by the Crusaders, who, following an appeal by Pope Urban II, came from Europe to recover the Holy Land from the infidels. In July 1099, after a five-week siege, the knights of the First Crusade and their rabble army captured Jerusalem, massacring most of the city's non-Christian inhabitants. Barricaded in their synagogues, the Jews defended their quarter, only to be burnt to death or sold into slavery.

35 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 13th through 16th centuries CE c – 1516 CE: Mamluk Rule The Land under the Mamluks became a backwater province ruled from Cairo. Akko, Jaffa (Yafo) and other ports were destroyed for fear of new crusades, and maritime as well as overland commerce was interrupted. By the end of the Middle Ages, the country's urban centers were virtually in ruins, most of Jerusalem was abandoned and the small Jewish community was poverty-stricken. The period of Mamluk decline was darkened by political and economic upheavals, plagues, locust invasions and devastating earthquakes.

36 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 16th through 20th centuries CE CE: Ottoman Rule Following the Ottoman conquest in 1517, the Land was divided into four districts and attached administratively to the province of Damascus and ruled from Istanbul. With a gradual decline in the quality of Ottoman rule, the country was brought to a state of widespread neglect. By the end of the 18th century, much of the land was owned by absentee landlords and leased to impoverished tenant farmers, and taxation was as crippling as it was capricious. An estimated 1,000 Jewish families lived in the country, mainly in Jerusalem, Nablus (Shechem), Hebron, Gaza, Safad (Tzfat) and the villages of Galilee.

37 The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS 19th through 20th centuries CE Zionism The national liberation movement of the Jewish people, derives its name from the word 'Zion', the traditional synonym for Jerusalem and the Land of Israel. The idea of Zionism -- the redemption of the Jewish people in its ancestral homeland -- is rooted in the continuous longing for and deep attachment to the Land of Israel, which have been an inherent part of Jewish existence in the Diaspora through the centuries. Theodore Herzl


Download ppt "The Birthplace of the Jewish People is the Land of Israel There has been a continuous and unbroken Jewish presence in the Land of Israel since the 17th."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google