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FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Academic Writing.

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1 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Academic Writing

2 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Revision: What makes a good academic paper?  verifiable results  comprehensible  meaningful overall topic  independent achievement (giving your own analysis and interpretation of sources and media)  works with current research literature

3  Uses grammatically correct and stylistically appropriate language (e.g. no short forms such as “isn’t” or “don’t”)  Is clear in terminology, structure and argumentation  Evidence and sources support the main argument  Evidence and sources are verifiable FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte

4 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1.) The Structure of an Academic Paper 1.1 Criteria for a Good Structure and Outline 1.2 Functions and Contents of an Introduction 1.3 The Structure of your Argumentation 1.4 Your Conclusion

5 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1.1 Criteria for a Good Structure and Outline of your Paper  restricted topic  working on a specific problem  It shows that the writer can handle and reflect scientific problems  It is NOT just a summary of what you have read but includes critical consideration, review, evaluation and assessment

6 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Your outline should be:  Clear  Expressive  Informative  Complete  Consistent

7 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1.2 Functions and Contents of the introduction -Defines the interest of the paper (Which issues are you looking at? What is it you want to find out?) -Makes clear why your topic is important (Why is it worth considering?) -States your main thesis (What do you want to convey to your readers?) -Gives an overview of your methods and main sources -Outlines the overall structure of your paper

8 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Potential aspects to begin with (for example):  Relevance of your topic for public life  Cultural/Historical significance of your topic  Academic debate about your topic  Suitable quotation

9 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1.3 The Structure of your Argumentation in the Main Body  An overview over recent research literature and scientific findings  A theoretical framework for the topic you work with  Chapters where you actually work with texts, theories, statistics,…and apply them to your topic

10 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Revision: What you should do As far as possible, include primary sources (statistics, letters, diaries,…) Work with the latest research literature (magazine articles, research articles, monographs) Be critical  not everything in print is beyond reproach! Use your own words as far as possible

11 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Only include information that you can prove Distinguish clearly between your ideas and the ideas of others Select your sources and arguments according to the interest of your paper

12 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte What you should avoid: Overlong quotes stringing together quotes generalizations, platitudes, stereotypes, subjective opinions that are not proven by the argumentation (do not include phrases such as “Personally, I think the text is boring” or “Americans love weapons”) Excessive use of metatext (“Now I will discuss…” etc.  readers will be able to follow the structure of a good paper through the flow of argumentation without it being hinted explicitly)

13 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1.4 Your Conclusion Should relate to your thesis stated in the introduction Summarizes the results/ main points of your work No new information must be added What was the main insight of your work? What problems did you encounter? Are there any unresolved questions? Which further work could your topic require?

14 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte I. How to use citations correctly

15 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1. Essentials If you copy another author’s passage or use an another author’s idea, you have to name your source All citations must be relevant to your argument Do not include random citations Footnotes are used for explanatory notes and translations (not for reference) The full bibliographical entry is in your bibliography, in the text shortened references are used

16 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation Correspond exactly to the original text Use quotation marks: “” Omissions marked as: […] Errors are not corrected, but followed by [sic] Foreign language citations must be reproduced in the original (translation in footnote) Citations longer than 3 lines: must be set apart from the rest of the text (without quotation marks) slightly indented single spaced smaller font size

17 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation o Author named in text:  In his latest statements, J.R. Killjoy regretted “the never-ending Festschrift craze“ (120). o Author named in reference:  In his latest statements, he regretted “the never-ending Festschrift craze” (Killjoy 120). o Author cited from indirect source:  (Killjoy in Smartalleck 25)

18 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation o Citing two or more texts by the same author: o (Killjoy 1995, 13). o Citing two or more texts by the same author and with the same year: o (Iser 1988a, 123).

19 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation o Texts by two or three authors:  All must be named o Texts by more than three authors:  Name the first author and use the abbreviation et al.

20 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. Direct citation longer than 3 lines

21 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 3. Paraphrase of an author’s ideas Do not use quotation marks Clearly indicate where paraphrase begins and ends Use the following form: (cf. Bellamy 9)

22 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte IV. Exercises on compiling bibliographical entries & citations

23 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group I – Solutions: KNIGHT, Stephen. “Enter the Detective: Early Patterns of Crime Fiction.” The Art of Murder. New Essays on Detective Fiction. Eds. H.Gustav KLAUS and Stephen KNIGHT. Tübingen: Stauffenburg, RUSSELL, Sharon A.. “Mystery and Horror and the Problems of Adaptation in Angel Heart and Falling Angel.” It’s a Print! Detective Fiction from Page to Screen. Eds. William REYNOLDS and Elizabeth A. TREMBLEY. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press,

24 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group I – Solutions: MC CAW, Neil. Adapting Detective Fiction. Crime, Englishness and the TV Detectives. London and New York: Continuum, PRIESTMAN, Martin. Crime Fiction from Poe to the Present. Plymouth: Northcote, MUNT, Sally R. Murder by the Book? Feminism and the Crime Novel. London and New York: Routledge, DUNNETT, Jane. “Crime and the Critics. On the Appraisal of Detective Novels in 1930s Italy.” The Modern Language Review 106 (2011):

25 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group I – Solutions: Direktes Zitat: “In an unusual example of the increasing influence of one popular form on another, both novel and film combine cinematic and literary traditions in their exploration of the relationship between horror and mystery” (Russell 159). Indirektes Zitat/Paraphrase (beispielhaft): The international celebrity of Sherlock Holmes as a character in detective fiction was evident for example in 2006 when Google placed him as an icon on the anniversary of Arthur Conan Doyle’s death (cf. McCaw 19).

26 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group II – Solutions: GLOVER, David. “The Thriller.” The Cambridge Companion to Crime Fiction. Ed. Martin PRIESTMAN. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, THEOHARIS, Jeanne. “Alabama on Avalon.” The Black Power Movement. Rethinking the Civil Rights–Black Power Era. Ed. Peniel E. JOSEPH. New York and London: Routledge,

27 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group II – Solutions: ROUTLEY, Erik. The Puritan Pleasures of the Detective Story. A Personal Monograph. London: Gollancz, HORSLEY, Lee. Twentieth -Century Crime Fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, LEVAY, Matthew. “Remaining a Mystery. Gertrude Stein, Crime Fiction and Popular Modernism.” Journal of Modern Literature 36 (2013):

28 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group II – Solutions: Direktes Zitat: According to David Glover, “the thriller is unusual in its reliance upon, or subordination to, the single-minded drive to deliver a starkly intense literary effect” (135). Indirektes Zitat/Paraphrase (beispielhaft): A good example for the richness of ideas and creativeness of the early twentieth-century thriller would be Edgar Wallace, who was the most important author in that genre until his death in 1932 (cf. Glover 139).

29 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group III – Solutions: WILLIAMS, Rhonda Y. “Black Women, Urban Politics, and Engendering Black Power.” The Black Power Movement. Rethinking the Civil Rights–Black Power Era. Ed. Peniel E. JOSEPH. New York and London: Routledge, POLLARD III, Alton B. “From Civil Rights to Hip Hop: A Meditation.” The Black Church and Hip Hop Culture. Toward Bridging the Generational Divide. Ed. Emmett G. PRICE III. Lanham, Toronto and Plymouth, UK: The Scarecrow Press,

30 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group III – Solutions: WORTHINGTON, Heather. Key Concenpts in Crime Fiction. London and New York: Macmillan, GREGORIOU, Christina. Deviance in Contemporary Crime Fiction. London and New York: Macmillan, WINKS, Robin W. ”American Detective Fiction.” American Studies International 19 (1980): 3-16.

31 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group III – Solutions: Direktes Zitat: According to Rhonda Williams, “an examination of their articulated motivations and practices not only provides a picture of 1960s’ struggles that often defy clear-cut categorizations, but also expands historical understandings of Black Power […]” (82). Indirektes Zitat/Paraphrase (beispielhaft): Detective fiction, along with the thriller and the gothic novel, has taken the place of the cowboy novel as the most important genre of American popular literature (cf. Winks 3).

32 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group IV – Solutions: HOWARD, Charles L. “Deep Calls to Deep: Beginning Explorations of the Dialogue between the Black Church and Hip Hop.” The Black Church and Hip Hop Culture. Toward Bridging the Generational Divide. Ed. Emmett G. PRICE III. Lanham, Toronto and Plymouth, UK: The Scarecrow Press, VANSERTIMA, Ivan. “African Linguistic and Mythological Structures in the New World.” Black Life and Culture in the United States. Ed. Rhoda L. Goldstein. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company,

33 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group IV – Solutions: COHEN, Cathy J. Democracy Remixed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, LANE, Anne J. “The Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Afro-American.” Black Life and Culture in the United States. Ed. Rhoda L. GOLDSTEIN. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, BROPHY, Brigid. “Detective Fiction: A Modern Myth of Violence?” The Hudson Review 18 (1965):

34 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group IV – Solutions: Direktes Zitat : As Brigid Brophy puts it, “the question mark is casting doubt on the violence, not the modernity or the myth […]” (11). Indirektes Zitat/Paraphrase (beispielhaft): In ancient times, where originality and novelty were less important in literature than today, many works by different authors might have contained the subject of one single myth (cf. Brophy 11).

35 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group V – Solutions: KINNEY, Esi Sylvia. “Africanisms in Music and Dance of the Americas.” Black Life and Culture in the United States. Ed. Rhoda L. GOLDSTEIN. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, OGBAR, Jeffrey O. G. Black Power. Radical Politics and African American Identity. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

36 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group V – Solutions: LINCOLN, C. Eric/ MAMIYA, Lawrence H. The Black Church in the African American Experience. Durham and London: Duke University Press, SKINNER, Elliott P. African Americans and U.S. Policy toward Africa In Defense of Black Nationality. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, COHEN, Victor. “Progressive Nostalgia: The Post-War Crime Fiction of Paul William Ryan.” Journal of Narrative Theory 37 (2007):

37 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Group V – Solutions: Direktes Zitat: Following Victor Cohen, „at first glance this might seem a curiously anachronistic literary project” (375). Indirektes Zitat/Paraphrase (beispielhaft): African Americans were discriminated against in all areas of public life and laws and customs on different levels made them outsiders (cf. Ogbar 11).

38 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte II. How to find literature and sources

39 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Contents 1.Library for English (07EN) and American (07AM) Studies 2.OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) 3.Jstore 4.MLA International Bibliography 5.Google Books/ Google Scholar 6.Wikipedia? 7.YouTube?

40 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 1. Library for English (07EN) and American (07AM) Studies Search literature in OPAC Look around

41 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 2. OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue)OPAC Finding books Interlibrary loan FAUdok Find detailed instructions here: erlangen.de/studon/goto.php?target=pg_20335_370

42 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 3. JstoreJstore Search for essays Only accessible with a university IP address Use a VPN tunnel to get access from your home computersVPN tunnel

43 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 4. MLA International BibliographyMLA International Bibliography Most important bibliography for Literature, Linguistics & Folkloristics Access via Uni Erlangen  OPAC  Databases Search for essays and books

44 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 5. Google Books/ Google Scholar Good for finding out whether a book or an essay is useful to you

45 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 6. Wikipedia? What you can use it for: To get a quick overview German and English articles are usually pretty good Look at the literature cited

46 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 6. Wikipedia? Why you cannot use it as a reliable source: Author of the article is not mentioned Author of the article can be anyone Articles usually show just one point of view Literature cited in articles not sufficient Articles may contain wrong or controversial information, but cite it as “truth”

47 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 6. Wikipedia? conclusion: Use it for general overview and check the literature cited Do not include information from Wikipedia in your papers Do not cite Wikipedia as a source If you find something interesting in Wikipedia, check the literature and cite that as your source instead

48 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte 7. YouTube? Be careful Videos can be deleted Make sure the author(s) of the video(s) are reliable

49 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte III. Good papers vs. bad papers

50 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Introdution: “I’ve always really like basketball. And since a lot of Blacks play this sport, I find it really important to talk about African Americans.”  Relevance? “Blacks”  Terminology: African Americans “As you all may know”  Empty phrase “[…] the first African slaves arrived in the present-day United States as part of the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526.”  Relevance?; Source? “Today Blacks are quite accepted”  What does that mean?; Source I think this is a great success  Personal opinion not important in an academic paper

51 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Introduction: “So now let’s discuss […]”  Style Formal Aspects  Blocksatz  No random Images  Source?

52 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Introduction: What is missing?  Everything! Topic (Civil Rights/ M. L. King) only vaguely stated Does not make clear why the topic is important Main Thesis or main Question Overview of methods and main sources Structure of the paper results

53 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Title Page: “Is this a scary horror story or is the female protagonist just crazy?”  No questions in Titles

54 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Contents: No Introduction No Conclusion “Wahrheitsgemäße Erklärung” should not be listed No Pages

55 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Structure of the paper: 1. Biography of the Author  Relevance? 2. Summary of the story  Relevance? 3. What I really liked  irrelevant 4. What I didn’t like so much  Irrelevant

56 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Structure of the paper: 5. Is the woman just crazy? Arguments for Strong arguments Weak arguments Arguments against Strong arguments weak arguments  Not enough  Sub-chapters not numbered  Strong-weak division pointless

57 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Structure of the paper: 6. Personal opinion  Irrelevant 7. What should the Author have done better  Irrelevant

58 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Bibliography: 1.  Name of editor?  Title of the article?  Date of access?  hyperlinks  Wikipedia 2.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/67474/African- Americanshttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/67474/African- Americans  Name of editor?  Title of the article?  Date of access?  hyperlinks

59 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Bibliography: 3. Abernathy, Ralph, And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: An Autobiography, Harper & Row, ISBN  Not MLA style  ISBN 4. Branch, Taylor, At Canaan's Edge: America In the King Years, 1965–1968, Simon & Schuster, ISBN X  Not MLA style  ISBN

60 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Bibliography: 5. I Have a Dream Speech by Martin Luther King Jr., Martin Luther King's Address at March on Washington, August 28, Washington, D.C.  Primary and secondary sources need to be separated  What version of the speech is this?  TV broadcast?  Transcription?  Where did you find it?

61 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte A good introduction- What does it contain? -Suitable quotation(s) at the beginning with transition to the topic of the paper -Main thesis/purpose of the paper ( The paper shows that vocabulary becomes more and more crucial to the teaching and learning of a foreign language, while the focus on grammar decreases.) -Importance of the topic ( recent developments, implications for teaching etc.)

62 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte -Overview of methods and main sources  Method: examining the role of vocabulary for English Language teaching today; thinking about potential problems due to the wrong choice of words  implications for teaching and curricula with focus on 5 th grade, ‘Gymnasium’  Main Sources: curricula, course books for 5 th grade  Outline of the overall structure of the paper

63 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Title Page  Includes all important information  Meaningful and expressive title (not too long, tells the reader what the paper will do)

64 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Structure and Table of Contents -Numbered headings and subheadings, including introduction and conclusion, appendix and bibliography -Page numbers (consistent) -„Wahrheitsgemäße Erklärung“ is not included -Meaningful subdivision of topics

65 FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg Department Geschichte Professur für Alte Geschichte Bibliography -Distinguishes between primary and secondary sources -Sticks to formal (MLA) conventions for each of the publication types (internet, articles in anthology, monographs) -Consistent -Alphabetical order


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