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© Learning ZoneXpress
2 Learner Objectives Identify stages of child development Understand physical, intellectual, emotional and social characteristics of developmental stages Apply stages to interactions with children
3 © Learning ZoneXpress Significance of this Study Studying child development helps us to learn: Children have stages of growth Creeping and crawling before walking Each stage builds on previous stages Feeling trust must come before acting independently Stages are only a guide, each child will grow at their own pace “Early” and “late” walkers can come from the same family
4 © Learning ZoneXpress Significance of this Study (cont.) Development does not always go forward in even steps After learning toilet independence, a child may forget their new skill Mistakes are normal Children fall often before they walk Children grow in several areas simultaneously Listening to a book brings about learning a language, trust in an adult and how to turn pages
5 © Learning ZoneXpress Stage Names and Age Ranges Newborn Birth to three months Infancy Three months to one year Toddlerhood One to three years Preschool age Three to five years School age Five to ten years
6 © Learning ZoneXpress Types of Growth & Development Physical Development – Growth in the body’s size and ability Growing taller Gaining weight Building muscles Coordinating eyes and hands Emotional Development – Maturing of the mind Thinking Reasoning Using language Forming ideas
7 © Learning ZoneXpress Strong feelings, such as love, fear, anger Self esteem Sharing Coping with change Communicating with others Playing with others Learning right and wrong Emotional and Social Development Expression of feelings and relationships with others
8 © Learning ZoneXpress Newborn Development (birth to three months) Physically Short necks Sloping shoulders Protruding abdomen Narrow chests Weak legs and arms They are very helpless Respond to touch and warmth May kick or cry at air changes, rough textures or moisture See patterns in close-up objects They see best at an eight-inch distance Communicate by crying and cooing and beginning to smile
9 © Learning ZoneXpress Reflexes of Newborns Rooting Reflex: When the newborn’s cheek is stroked, they turn their head toward the touch and open their mouth and start sucking in search of food. Grasping Reflex: When the inside of the palm is touched, babies grasp a finger tightly. Startle Reflex: When a baby is put down, held away, or hears a loud noise, a baby throws out their arms, draw back their head and stretch out their legs in response. Babinski Reflex: Babies extend their toes when the soles of their feet are stroked.
10 © Learning ZoneXpress Newborn Care Giving Guidelines Establish a daily routine Provide consistent care Talk to infants Hold infants close while giving care Provide an interesting environment Be relaxed and calm Develop bonding by cuddling infants
11 © Learning ZoneXpress Infant Development (three months to one year) Physical Development Rapid growth – 1 1 / 2 times in length and 3 times weight from birth to 1 year Hold head up and turn it Control of arm and leg movements Support themselves with arms when on tummy Grasp and drop objects Learn to sit Begin to creep or crawl Pull themselves up to standing position Develop hand-eye coordination
12 © Learning ZoneXpress Infant Development (cont.) Intellectual Development Communicate at first by crying Coo and begin to babble Begin to say a few words Explore objects by touching and putting them in their mouth
13 © Learning ZoneXpress Infant Development (cont.) Emotional and Social Development Recognize caregivers Experience stranger anxiety with unfamiliar person Experience separation anxiety when caregiver leaves Fear moving too far from caregiver when playing Need to develop trust in their caregivers.
14 © Learning ZoneXpress Infant Care Giving Guidelines When holding young infants, support their head and neck. Make the environment safe for the child by removing harmful objects that are within their reach. Choose toys that are safe; check the size and sturdiness. Pay special attention to their safety when they are crawling.
15 © Learning ZoneXpress Toddlers Development (one to three years) Physical Development Grow rapidly, becoming taller and heavier Strengthening of bones and muscles Begin to walk, climb, run, throw balls, stack blocks and turn knobs Begin to use a spoon and cup Seem to be in constant motion
16 © Learning ZoneXpress Toddlers Development (cont.) Intellectual Development Begin talking and saying short sentences Understand more than they can say Learn names of body parts and objects around them Begin to understand a vague sense of time, counting, colors, shapes, sizes
17 © Learning ZoneXpress Toddlers Development (cont.) Play next to, rather than with, other children Say “no” and “I do it myself” a lot Take pride in dressing and feeding themselves May grab a toy if another child looks at the toy Begin to learn rules and limits Begin to understand right and wrong Test new behaviors and observe results of their actions May be easily frustrated May have extreme mood swings Developing a sense of self worth May have a fantasy life Emotional and Social Development
18 © Learning ZoneXpress Toddler Care Giving Guidelines Provide toys at the child’s ability level: Puzzles, nesting buckets, and blocks. Take walks to explore surroundings and talk about what’s being seen. Identify objects the child can see, hear, smell, touch or taste. Read to the child and name objects in pictures. Let the child help with simple household tasks. Compliment the child on their good behavior and accomplishments. Read and talk to the child.
19 © Learning ZoneXpress Physical Development Arms and legs become longer in relation to their torso Becomes thinner Improved ability to hop, skip, catch and throw and balance on one foot Can feed themselves and work large buttons or zippers Can use small scissors and glue things together Can draw somewhat realistic pictures Preschoolers Development (three to five years)
20 © Learning ZoneXpress Preschoolers Development (cont.) Intellectual Development Ask “who, what and where” questions about their environment Use short sentences to carry on a conversation Begin to learn about reading, writing and following directions Can concentrate on a task
21 © Learning ZoneXpress Preschoolers Development (cont.) Are eager to please Begin to be cooperative and to share in playing with others Begin to solve simple problems Can understand and follow rules Have a sense of right and wrong Want to avoid punishment and gain rewards Express feelings Need to develop positive feelings about themselves May have fears, such as of the dark May not grasp differences between fantasy and reality Emotional and Social Development
22 © Learning ZoneXpress Preschoolers Care Giving Guidelines Build motor skills by providing water play, encouraging running, skipping, playing catch and with games like hide and seek and Simon Says. Do simple crafts, storytelling, use puppets and play dress up. Encourage the child to talk about their activities, artwork and feelings about their friends and family. Provide puzzles, cutting and coloring activities. Assign household tasks and help the child to successfully complete the task. Talk with the child about their everyday activities and feelings, encouraging their questions.
23 © Learning ZoneXpress Physical Development Replacement of baby teeth with permanent teeth Increased ability in large motor skills – kicking and catching a ball School Age Children Development (five to ten years)
24 © Learning ZoneXpress School Age Children Development (cont.) Intellectual Development Exploring and testing of their environment and ideas Asking many questions about how and why things are as they are Learning math, reading and writing skills Expanding vocabularies by about 5000 words per year
25 © Learning ZoneXpress School Age Children Development (cont.) Emotional and Social Development Forming peer groups Taking more responsibility for their behavior Discovering that rules may be flexible Knowing difference between right and wrong Recognizing others have feelings Feeling of fear may decrease Feeling of stress may increase
26 © Learning ZoneXpress School Age Children Care Giving Guidelines Support the child’s involvement in learning and participating in school activities. Help the child to develop one or two special interests, such as collecting stamps or rocks, studying birds, playing an instrument, or getting involved in a sport. Help them develop one or two special interests such as collecting of something like stamps, rocks, or studying birds. Provide realistic positive feedback. Encourage friendships and involvement in groups of children you know well. Provide ways for the child to learn responsibilities such as caring for pets. Encourage healthy eating habits and appropriate feelings about body image.
27 © Learning ZoneXpress Discussion Questions 1. How does knowledge of child development help parents with the task of parenting? 2. Why does a doctor check a child’s height and weight when giving regular check-ups? 3. How does knowing sequences of development help a parent support the child’s growth and development? 4. When should a child begin to help with household chores? 5. How does knowledge of child development reduce the potential for child abuse?
28 © Learning ZoneXpress Review 1. This type of development refers to development of the mind. It is the ability to think, reason, use language and form ideas. What is it? Answer: Intellectual 2. This development is the growth or change in body size and ability. What type is it? Answer: Physical
29 © Learning ZoneXpress Review (cont.) 3. When you learn the rules and learn to communicate and get along with others, you are experiencing this type of development. Answer: Social 4. Love, happiness, fear and anger are sometimes expressed in this type of development. Answer: Emotional
30 © Learning ZoneXpress Match the Ages to the Stages of Child Development 1.3 months to one yearA.Preschool age 2.three to five yearsB.Newborn 3.birth to 3 monthsC.Toddlerhood 4.one to three yearsD.School Age 5.five to ten yearsE.Infancy
31 © Learning ZoneXpress Web Sites to Review Examples of Developmental Stages http://www1.dshs.wa.gov/ca/fosterparents/training/chidev/cd04.htm http://www1.dshs.wa.gov/ca/fosterparents/training/chidev/cd04.htm Developmental Milestones http://sites.target.com/site/en/kids/page.jsp?contentId=PRD03-00003&showExpanded=showExpanded http://sites.target.com/site/en/kids/page.jsp?contentId=PRD03-00003&showExpanded=showExpanded Halsey Schools – Ages and Stages of Child Development http://www.halseyschools.com/Woodland Hills/Help_Pages/Ages & Stages/12-24 Months.htm http://www.halseyschools.com/Woodland Hills/Help_Pages/Ages & Stages/12-24 Months.htm Normal Stages of Human Development http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/normaldevelopment.shtml http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/normaldevelopment.shtml Other References Butler, S. & Kratz, D. (1999). The Field Guide to Parenting. Worcester, MA: Chandler House Press. Gesell, A. & Ilg, F. (1943). Infant and Child in the Culture of Today. New York: Harper & Brothers Publisher. Davis, L. & Keyser, J. (1997). Becoming the Parent You Want to Be. New York: Broadway Books. Consultants Dr. Marty Rossmann, Professor Emeritus, Family Education, University of Minnesota Colleen Angel, FACS Educator
AGES & STAGES of Child Development Fill-in Notes.
Pre-School (3-5) & School Age (5-10) Whittney Smith, Ed.D.
© Learning ZoneXpress. 2 Objetivos Identificar las etapas del desarrollo Entender las características de cada etapa del desarrollo físico, intelectual,
© Learning ZoneXpress. 2 Learner Objectives Identify stages of child development Understand physical, intellectual, emotional and social characteristics.
1 © Learning ZoneXpress Physical Development Arms and legs become longer in relation to their torso Becomes thinner Improved ability to hop, skip,
1 Ages N Stages Chapter Discuss the following phrases…… “acting like a child” “from the mouth of babes”
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Copy the chart Age Physical Cognitive Social Communication.
Understanding Children From Birth to Age 2. Development This refers to the change or growth that occurs in a child. During the first year after birth.
Understanding Infants What is Typical?. At no other time in life are growth and development so dramatic. Growth: refers to an increase in size or weight.
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Newborn & Infant Development Georgia CTAE Resource Network Instructional Resources Office Written by: LaDonna Steele Bartmas July 2009.
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Physical Development of Infants. Patterns of Physical Development Head to Foot Head to Foot Lifts up head first, then shoulders, then knees to eventually.
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Glencoe The Developing Child Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development of Infants Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development of Infants 1 Chapter Emotional.
1 Physical Development of the Infant Chapter 7. 2 Skeletal Growth Made of bones and teeth Skeletal growth refers to the changes in length, weight, and.
Developmental Stages of Infants Physical, Social, Emotional, Intellectual.
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Needs of a Newborn. Apgar Test The Apgar test is done at one minute and then again five minutes after delivery. They test for the newborn’s ability to.
Willa Mack, FACS. Three and four-year-old children are often called preschoolers. Preschool children are making developmental strides and express an.
OBJECTIVE 4.02 COMPARE EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS.
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Why study children? To Understand Children Better understand why they do what they do Better appreciate all characteristics of human development Understand.
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