2Learner Objectives Identify stages of child development Understand physical, intellectual, emotional and social characteristics of developmental stagesApply stages to interactions with childrenSlide 2: How many stages of child development can you name before we see this powerpoint? What types of descriptions are included in the physical, intellectual, emotional and social characteristics of the stages of development? What area do you think would be the most interesting to learn more about?
3Significance of this Study Studying child development helps us to learn:Children have stages of growthCreeping and crawling before walkingEach stage builds on previous stagesFeeling trust must come before acting independentlyStages are only a guide, each child will grow at their own pace“Early” and “late” walkers can come from the same familySlide 3-4: These slides tell us why it is important to learn about child development. What reasons do you have for wanting to learn more? Why is it important that all people learn more about child development?
4Significance of this Study (cont.) Development does not always go forward in even stepsAfter learning toilet independence, a child may forget their new skillMistakes are normalChildren fall often before they walkChildren grow in several areas simultaneouslyListening to a book brings about learning a language, trust in an adult and how to turn pages.
5Stage Names and Age Ranges NewbornBirth to three monthsInfancyThree months to one yearToddlerhoodOne to three yearsPreschool ageThree to five yearsSchool ageFive to ten yearsSlide 5: This slide lists the ages in each stage of child development. How many children do you know in each of these stages? Which stage do you predict has the most changes and growth? If you had a career working with children, which of these stages would you most like to work with and why?
6Types of Growth & Development Physical Development – Growth in the body’s size and abilityGrowing tallerGaining weightBuilding musclesCoordinating eyes and handsEmotional Development – Maturing of the mindThinkingReasoningUsing languageForming ideasSlide 6: In these slides – the types of growth and development, the overall physical and intellectual development characteristics are described. Can you see physical development changes more easily or do you think it is just as easy to see how a child grows in intellectual development?
7Emotional and Social Development Expression of feelings and relationships with othersStrong feelings, such as love, fear, angerSelf esteemSharingCoping with changeCommunicating with othersPlaying with othersLearning right and wrongSlide 7: What makes social development so challenging for some children? How important is it for parents to model good behaviors associated to emotional and social development? (Answers will vary)
8Newborn Development (birth to three months) PhysicallyShort necksSloping shouldersProtruding abdomenNarrow chestsWeak legs and armsThey are very helplessRespond to touch and warmthMay kick or cry at air changes, rough textures or moistureSee patterns in close-up objectsThey see best at an eight-inch distanceCommunicate by crying and cooing and beginning to smileSlide 8: How many of these physical development characteristics have you observed in a newborn? What is your experience with newborns?
9Reflexes of Newborns Rooting Reflex: Grasping Reflex: Startle Reflex: When the newborn’s cheek is stroked, they turn their head toward the touch and open their mouth and start sucking in search of food.Grasping Reflex:When the inside of the palm is touched, babies grasp a finger tightly.Startle Reflex:When a baby is put down, held away, or hears a loud noise, a baby throws out their arms, draw back their head and stretch out their legs in response.Babinski Reflex:Babies extend their toes when the soles of their feet are stroked.Slide 9: How many of you have observed these behaviors in newborns? Did you know that each type of reflex had a name? Can you give an example of how a newborn exhibits the grasping reflex or the startle reflex?
10Newborn Care Giving Guidelines Establish a daily routineProvide consistent careTalk to infantsHold infants close while giving careProvide an interesting environmentBe relaxed and calmDevelop bonding by cuddling infantsSlide 10: Do you think it is harder to care for a newborn than an older child? What are some things that are more challenging for you as a caregiver of a newborn? (Answers will vary)
11Infant Development (three months to one year) Physical DevelopmentRapid growth – 11/2 times in length and 3 times weight from birth to 1 yearHold head up and turn itControl of arm and leg movementsSupport themselves with arms when on tummyGrasp and drop objectsLearn to sitBegin to creep or crawlPull themselves up to standing positionDevelop hand-eye coordinationSlide 11: Infants grow and change rapidly. Have you ever noticed what it is like to buy clothes for infants? How often does a 6 month old baby wear the 6 month clothes? What special things are used when making infant clothing to make them more accommodating for this type of child? (Answers will vary) How many of you know when you were able to sit or stand?
12Infant Development (cont.) Intellectual DevelopmentCommunicate at first by cryingCoo and begin to babbleBegin to say a few wordsExplore objects by touching and putting them in their mouthSlide 12: Who remembers what your parents told you were the first words that you said? Is it true that “everything goes into an infant’s mouth”? What types of changes in the home need to happen when an infant begins crawling?
13Infant Development (cont.) Emotional and Social DevelopmentRecognize caregiversExperience stranger anxiety with unfamiliar personExperience separation anxiety when caregiver leavesFear moving too far from caregiver when playingNeed to develop trust in their caregivers.Slide 13: How many of you have seen “stranger anxiety” in an infant? Describe the situation. How would you describe the “play time” of an infant?
14Infant Care Giving Guidelines When holding young infants, support their head and neck.Make the environment safe for the child by removing harmful objects that are within their reach.Choose toys that are safe; check the size and sturdiness.Pay special attention to their safety when they are crawling.Slide 14: What are your challenges when you are a babysitter for an infant? What do you think would be the most important quality a parent would look for when choosing a caregiver?
15Toddlers Development (one to three years) Physical DevelopmentGrow rapidly, becoming taller and heavierStrengthening of bones and musclesBegin to walk, climb, run, throw balls, stack blocks and turn knobsBegin to use a spoon and cupSeem to be in constant motionSlide 15: What do you observe and notice most about a toddler? Describe their physical accomplishments.
16Toddlers Development (cont.) Intellectual DevelopmentBegin talking and saying short sentencesUnderstand more than they can sayLearn names of body parts and objects around themBegin to understand a vague sense of time, counting, colors, shapes, sizesSlide 16: What observations have you made about the intellectual development of toddlers? Do toddlers understand more than they can communicate? What would be a fun learning game to play with toddlers related to intellectual development?
17Toddlers Development (cont.) Emotional and Social DevelopmentPlay next to, rather than with, other childrenSay “no” and “I do it myself” a lotTake pride in dressing and feeding themselvesMay grab a toy if another child looks at the toyBegin to learn rules and limitsBegin to understand right and wrongTest new behaviors and observe results of their actionsMay be easily frustratedMay have extreme mood swingsDeveloping a sense of self worthMay have a fantasy lifeSlide 17: Why do you think a favorite word of toddlers is “no”? What are some of the hardest social development characteristics that a toddler must learn? Under the category of emotional development – a toddler is easily frustrated. Do you think this is true of the toddlers you have observed? Why?
18Toddler Care Giving Guidelines Provide toys at the child’s ability level: Puzzles, nesting buckets, and blocks.Take walks to explore surroundings and talk about what’s being seen.Identify objects the child can see, hear, smell, touch or taste.Read to the child and name objects in pictures.Let the child help with simple household tasks.Compliment the child on their good behavior and accomplishments.Read and talk to the child.Slide 18: What are the most popular toys that toddlers have? What type of activity have you done as a care giver of a toddler that has taught them something educational? Name a household task that a toddler could help with.
19Preschoolers Development (three to five years) Physical DevelopmentArms and legs become longer in relation to their torsoBecomes thinnerImproved ability to hop, skip, catch and throw and balance on one footCan feed themselves and work large buttons or zippersCan use small scissors and glue things togetherCan draw somewhat realistic picturesSlide 19: What do you think is the most important physical development characteristic of a preschooler and why? What physical game can you play successfully with a preschooler?
20Preschoolers Development (cont.) Intellectual DevelopmentAsk “who, what and where” questions about their environmentUse short sentences to carry on a conversationBegin to learn about reading, writing and following directionsCan concentrate on a taskSlide 20: Give an example of intellectual development displayed by a preschooler.Share a conversation you had with a preschooler. What topics did you discuss? What surprised you about their knowledge of the subject?
21Preschoolers Development (cont.) Emotional and Social DevelopmentAre eager to pleaseBegin to be cooperative and to share in playing with othersBegin to solve simple problemsCan understand and follow rulesHave a sense of right and wrongWant to avoid punishment and gain rewardsExpress feelingsNeed to develop positive feelings about themselvesMay have fears, such as of the darkMay not grasp differences between fantasy and realitySlide 21: From your experiences, did the social development of the preschoolers follow the guidelines given on our slide? How do preschoolers often express their feelings?
22Preschoolers Care Giving Guidelines Build motor skills by providing water play, encouraging running, skipping, playing catch and with games like hide and seek and Simon Says.Do simple crafts, storytelling, use puppets and play dress up.Encourage the child to talk about their activities, artwork and feelings about their friends and family.Provide puzzles, cutting and coloring activities.Assign household tasks and help the child to successfully complete the task.Talk with the child about their everyday activities and feelings, encouraging their questions.Slide 22: As a babysitter, have you followed these care giving guidelines? Which of the activities mentioned have you done with Preschoolers? From your experiences, what type of activities do preschoolers enjoy most?
23School Age Children Development (five to ten years) Physical DevelopmentReplacement of baby teeth with permanent teethIncreased ability in large motor skills – kicking and catching a ballSlide 23: If you were a teacher, what would be the challenges for teaching children at age five to ten? Tell a story about the loss of a baby tooth.
24School Age Children Development (cont.) Intellectual DevelopmentExploring and testing of their environment and ideasAsking many questions about how and why things are as they areLearning math, reading and writing skillsExpanding vocabularies by about 5000 words per yearSlide 24: What do you remember about yourself or a brother or sister regarding asking lots of questions? How is asking questions important to the intellectual development?
25School Age Children Development (cont.) Emotional and Social DevelopmentForming peer groupsTaking more responsibility for their behaviorDiscovering that rules may be flexibleKnowing difference between right and wrongRecognizing others have feelingsFeeling of fear may decreaseFeeling of stress may increaseSlide 25: What do you remember about learning to share? What examples of sharing or problems learning to share can you give from children you have observed recently? What are some of the issues parents or children have to deal with if children have trouble with social or emotional development?
26School Age Children Care Giving Guidelines Support the child’s involvement in learning and participating in school activities.Help the child to develop one or two special interests, such as collecting stamps or rocks, studying birds, playing an instrument, or getting involved in a sport.Help them develop one or two special interests such as collecting of something like stamps, rocks, or studying birds.Provide realistic positive feedback.Encourage friendships and involvement in groups of children you know well.Provide ways for the child to learn responsibilities such as caring for pets.Encourage healthy eating habits and appropriate feelings about body image.Slide 26: What types of responsibilities were you given as a child? Did you have pets? What kinds of chores did you have? What do you remember about having collections, hobbies, playing an instrument or being in a sport when you were in elementary school?
27Discussion Questions1. How does knowledge of child development help parents with the task of parenting?2. Why does a doctor check a child’s height and weight when giving regular check-ups?3. How does knowing sequences of development help a parent support the child’s growth and development?4. When should a child begin to help with household chores?5. How does knowledge of child development reduce the potential for child abuse?Slide Continue to follow the discussion and review questions given on all of the remainder of the slides.
28Review1. This type of development refers to development of the mind. It is the ability to think, reason, use language and form ideas. What is it?Answer: Intellectual2. This development is the growth or change in body size and ability. What type is it?Answer: Physical
29Review (cont.)3. When you learn the rules and learn to communicate and get along with others, you are experiencing this type of development.Answer: Social4. Love, happiness, fear and anger are sometimes expressed in this type of development.Answer: Emotional
30Match the Ages to the Stages of Child Development 1. 3 months to one year A. Preschool age2. three to five years B. Newborn3. birth to 3 months C. Toddlerhood4. one to three years D. School Age5. five to ten years E. Infancy
31Web Sites to Review Examples of Developmental Stages Developmental MilestonesHalsey Schools – Ages and Stages of Child DevelopmentHills/Help_Pages/Ages & Stages/12-24 Months.htmNormal Stages of Human DevelopmentOther ReferencesButler, S. & Kratz, D. (1999). The Field Guide to Parenting. Worcester, MA: Chandler House Press.Gesell, A. & Ilg, F. (1943). Infant and Child in the Culture of Today. New York: Harper & Brothers Publisher.Davis, L. & Keyser, J. (1997). Becoming the Parent You Want to Be. New York: Broadway Books.ConsultantsDr. Marty Rossmann, Professor Emeritus, Family Education, University of MinnesotaColleen Angel, FACS Educator.