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Of what is the Universe made?. Insert new hubble photos to start the inquiry.

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Presentation on theme: "Of what is the Universe made?. Insert new hubble photos to start the inquiry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Of what is the Universe made?

2 Insert new hubble photos to start the inquiry

3 The Universe is Made of MatterEnergyNothingness - vacuum Other Matter and Energy are really the same thing! E=MC 2

4 In this Hubble Photograph, you can see the matter and evidence of energy. What you also see, or think you see, is large amounts of nothingness. The vacuum of space. But what about “the other?”

5 Sadly, in fifth grade we only Study Matter and Energy. We must ignore “other” until college. Let us start with Matter.

6 Matter What is it? Why is it important?

7 The official definition of matter? Definition: anything that has mass and occupies space (has volume.) Synonyms of “Matter” : material, stuff, substance

8 So most of the things around us are matter

9 Can you think of other things that are matter?

10 What are some things that are not matter?

11 Let’s review today's discussion

12 Of what is Matter made?

13 Atoms

14 Matter is made of small particles called ATOMS

15 Atoms are so small they can not be seen even with powerful microscopes

16 A grain of salt is made of about 12,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms

17 Atoms were first named by an ancient Greek philosopher named Democritus

18 He called it an “a tom” because in Greek it means “that which can’t be cut.” We still call this smallest piece an ATOM But he thought of the atom as a kind of marble – a smooth round ball of whatever.

19 Close, But No Cigar He wasn’t completely w wrong, he was partly wrong!

20 Atoms have two basic parts A nucleus or center and electron shells

21 N N N N The nucleus may be small or large P P P P P P P P P P P P N N NN N N N N Nuclei are made of small particles called Protons and Neutrons N

22 The electron shells are in an area around the nucleus You can think of it as an orbit. Electron shells. Nucleus

23 So, unlike Democritus, we now know that atoms can be cut into smaller and smaller pieces themselves The parts of ATOMS are The PROTON, which has a positive electrical charge The ELECTRON, which has a negative charge And the NEUTRON which has no charge.

24 The Neutron (s) and Proton(s) make up the NUCLEUS or center of the atom

25 The electrons “orbit the nucleus” of the atom

26 Here is where Democritus was right. Once you cut the atom of something it is no longer the thing you started with. If you started with Gold, once you break the Gold atom it is no longer Gold!

27 Atoms look something like this They have a Nucleus (center) And little things that “orbit” the nucleus are the electrons

28 Properties of Matter A property is like a characteristic ~~ something that describes something else

29 When we talk about Matter There are three really important properties two important properties and a bunch that are not as important, but still useful in classifying and identifying matter.

30 Really Important Properties 1.Volume – How Much Space It Takes up 2.Mass – How Much Stuff Is in the Thing

31 Big Volume Big Mass

32 Really Important Property 3 state or phase of matter at room temp. State or phase of matter refers to: Solid Liquid Gas Gold is solid at room 68°f. Gold is melts at 1948°fGold boils at 5085°f

33 The key question is: Is the material you are look at a solid, liquid or gas AT ROOM TEMPERATURE Every type of matter will be one of these three at room temperature approximately 68°f

34 Important Property 3 – state or phase State or phase of matter refers to: Solid Liquid Gas I would like to find gaseous gold but couldn’t. I am not sure anyone would want gaseous gold. But it boils at 5085°f. At that temperature and correct pressure gold can become a gas.

35 The key question is: Is the material you are look at a solid, liquid or gas AT ROOM TEMPERATURE Every type of matter will be one of these three at room temperature approximately 68°f

36 Mass and Volume control two other important properties of matter Weight & Density

37 Important Weight – The Pull of Gravity on the Object Density – How Much Mass The Thing Has PER UNIT VOLUME

38 Weight is the measure of how much the force of gravity pulls down on an object.

39 Example Bob goe s to the moon

40 Earth Moon – 1/6 earth Weight = 120kg Weight = 20kg The gravitational pull of earth is defined as 1G. The moon, being 1/6 th the mass of earth has only 1/6G of pull. 1G1/6G

41 Earth Moon Mass = 120kg 120 kg 1G on Each side of Balance Mass = 120kg 120 kg 1/6G on Each side of Balance Earth pulls down at 1G so on the scale you get Weight = 120kg Moon pulls down at 1/6G so on a scale you get Weight = 20kg The BALANCE is different. Lets see why.

42 DENSITY How much stuff can you fit in a small space

43 Not much stuff packed into can A lot of stuff packed into can Not DenseDense

44 Other Physical Properties of Matter Color Smell Taste Texture Flexibility Malleability Conductivity Reflectance Ductility Viscosity (if a liquid) Boiling point Freezing Point Phase at Room Temperature


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