Presentation on theme: "Describing Matter Properties used to describe matter can be classified as extensive or intensive. An extensive property is a property that depends on."— Presentation transcript:
1 Describing MatterProperties used to describe matter can be classified as extensive or intensive.An extensive property is a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample.An intensive property is a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter.
2 Describing Matter Extensive properties depend on amount. 2.1Describing MatterExtensive properties depend on amount.The mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter the object contains.The volume of an object is a measure of the space occupied by the object.The big ball has more mass and volume than the little ball.
3 Describing Matter Intensive Properties 2.1Describing MatterIntensive PropertiesThe hardness of a bowling ball is an example of an intensive property.This bowling ball and candlepin are used in a game played mainly in New England
4 Is flammability an extensive or intensive property?
5 Identifying Substances 2.1Identifying SubstancesMatter that has a uniform and definite composition is called a substance.A substance is pure.The copper kettles are about 150 years old.
6 Identifying Substances 2.1Identifying SubstancesEvery sample of a given substance has identical intensive properties because every sample has the same composition.Example- Every sample of pure water is a clear, odorless, liquid at room temperature. The water will boil at 100ºC and freeze at 0ºC. These properties are intensive because they do not depend on how big the sample is.This gold falcon standard from Egypt is about 3000 years old. Analyzing Data Which of the properties listed in Table 2.1 could not be used to distinguish copper from gold?
7 Identifying Substances 2.1Identifying SubstancesA physical property is a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition.Hardness, color, conductivity, and malleability are examples of physical properties.
9 States of Matter What are three states of matter? 2.1States of MatterWhat are three states of matter?Three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
10 2.1States of MatterSolidsA solid is a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume.The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a solid, the particles are packed closely together in a rigid arrangement.
11 2.1States of MatterLiquidA liquid is a form of matter that has an indefinite shape, flows, yet has a fixed volume.The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a liquid, the particles are close together, but they are free to flow past one another.
12 2.1States of MatterGasesA gas is a form of matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container.The gas state is the only state of matter that is compressible.The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a gas, the particles are relatively far apart and can move freely. Relating Cause and Effect Use the arrangements of their particles to explain the general shape and volume of solids and gases.
13 2.1States of MatterVapor describes the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature, as in water vapor.
14 States of MatterMacroscopic qualities- volume, shape, and compressibilityMicroscopic properties- Relate the states of matter to the arrangements of their particles.
15 States of matter- the 3 forms at which matter exists Solid- particles are tightly packed in a rigid structure. Has a shape and a fixed volume!Liquid- particles are very close but can move around each other. Takes the shape of its container, but has a fixed volume.Gas- particles are far apart and have little effect on each other. Has no fixed shape or volume.
17 Substances go from solid to liquid to gas as energy increases.
18 2.1Physical ChangesDuring a physical change, some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change.As gallium melts in a person’s hand, the shape of the sample changes, but the composition of the material does not change.The silvery substance in the photograph is gallium, which has a melting point of 30°C. Inferring What can you infer about the temperature of the hand holding the gallium?
19 2.1Physical ChangesPhysical changes can be classified as reversible or irreversible.All physical changes that involve a change from one state to another are reversible.Cutting hair, filing nails, and cracking an egg are examples of irreversible physical changes.
20 2.1 Section Quiz.1.Which of the following would be described as an extensive property of matter?temperaturecolormasshardness
21 2.1 Section Quiz.2. Which properties can be observed without changing the composition of a substance?all properties of a substanceintensive propertieschemical propertiesphysical properties
22 2.1 Section Quiz. (1) liquid, (2) solid and (3) gas 3. Match the states of matter with the following descriptions:(1) takes the volume and shape of its container(2) has a definite shape and volume(3) has a definite volume but an indefinite shape(1) liquid, (2) solid and (3) gas(1) gas, (2) solid, and (3) liquid(1) gas, (2) liquid, and (3) solid