4 Mass and VolumeMass is the amount of matter (or material) something contains.Mass can be measured using a balance scale.The unit for mass is the gram (g).Try a short investigation with mass.
5 Mass and Volume cont’dVolume is (1) the amount of space matter takes up and (2) the amount of matter something can contain.Volume can be measured (1) using a graduated cylinder or (2) by calculating the length x width x height.The unit for volume is the liter (L), milliliter (mL), or the cubic centimeter (cm3).Try a short investigation with volume.
7 Particles – The 1st Theory Atomic Theory of Matter (John Dalton)elements are made up of tiny particles called atomsatoms of the same element are identical; atoms of different elements are differentatoms are not created or destroyedatoms can combine to form compounds
8 Particles – cont’d atoms made up of protons, electrons, and neutrons protons and neutrons make up the nucleusthe number of protons determines the elementelectrons orbit the nucleus
11 Physical Properties characteristics that are observed with the senses: physical state (solid, liquid or gas)colorodordensitymelting pointboiling pointfreezing pointhardness
12 Physical Changes changes in physical properties like… cutting a piece of paperice meltingboiling watercoloring a piece of paperplacing food coloring in waterThese changes do not result in different kinds of matter. For example melting ice [H2O (sol)] becomes water [H2O (aq)].
14 Kinetic Particle Theory of Matter matter made up of particlesparticles are in motionthere is space between the particleschanges in heat result in changes in particle motionchanges in heat result in changes in space between particles
15 3 Common States of Matter also 3 common states of watersolid, liquid, & gasalso BE-condensate & plasmaBE-condensate: predicted by Bose and Einstein in the 1920’s and realized in It is a gaseous superfluid cooled to near absolute zero (no motion of atoms). BE-condensates trap light. Plasmas are gases so hot that their molecules are ripped apart. This state is seen in stars.
16 Solid packed together but vibrate definite shape definite volume usually denseKinetic particle theory: very little motion of particles and little space between them. Ice is an example.
17 Liquid fairly close together able to move in all directions no definite shapefill the bottom of a containerdefinite volumeKinetic particle theory: more motion of particles and more space between them, allowing them to slide pass one another. Water is an example.
18 Gas fairly close together able to move in all directions and collide no definite shapeexpand to fill any containerno definite volumeusually low densityKinetic particle theory: a lot of motion of particles and a great deal of space between them. Steam is an example.
19 How does energy affect changes in state? Heat is energy. As it is added to matter, it causes the particles to move more and increases space between them. The opposite is true when heat is taken away.HEAT IS ENERGY!
20 Kinetic Particle LabTo observe the affects of heat on the particles of matter.Materials:3 containerswater (cold, room temperature, & hot)food coloringtimer
21 Lab QuestionsWhen you placed dye into the container filled with _?_ water, what did you observe?How long did it take for the dye to completely mix into the _?_ water?In which container did the water mix the fastest?Using the kinetic particle theory, explain what you observed.
23 Chemical Properties characteristics that describe how matter changes or interacts with other kinds of matter:paper burnsiron rustsgold does not rustwood rotssodium reacts with water
24 Chemical Changes changes in chemical properties like… always changes in the form of mattermatter is transformed completely into different materialsUnlike physical changes, chemical changes result in entirely new materials being formed. Examples are on next slide.
25 Chemical Changes cont’d iron turning into rust in moist airdigesting foodburning metals in fireworksIron (Fe) combines easily with Oxygen (O2) to form Iron Oxide. The iron in our blood combines with oxygen to help carry it throughout our bodies.