# What is Matter? Properties of Matter.

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What is Matter? Properties of Matter

Matter is… everything that has mass and volume
made up of atoms (tiny particles)

Mass and Volume

Mass and Volume Mass is the amount of matter (or material) something contains. Mass can be measured using a balance scale. The unit for mass is the gram (g). Try a short investigation with mass.

Mass and Volume cont’d Volume is (1) the amount of space matter takes up and (2) the amount of matter something can contain. Volume can be measured (1) using a graduated cylinder or (2) by calculating the length x width x height. The unit for volume is the liter (L), milliliter (mL), or the cubic centimeter (cm3). Try a short investigation with volume.

Particles

Particles – The 1st Theory
Atomic Theory of Matter (John Dalton) elements are made up of tiny particles called atoms atoms of the same element are identical; atoms of different elements are different atoms are not created or destroyed atoms can combine to form compounds

Particles – cont’d atoms made up of protons, electrons, and neutrons
protons and neutrons make up the nucleus the number of protons determines the element electrons orbit the nucleus

Particles – cont’d

Physical Properties

Physical Properties characteristics that are observed with the senses:
physical state (solid, liquid or gas) color odor density melting point boiling point freezing point hardness

Physical Changes changes in physical properties like…
cutting a piece of paper ice melting boiling water coloring a piece of paper placing food coloring in water These changes do not result in different kinds of matter. For example melting ice [H2O (sol)] becomes water [H2O (aq)].

Physical Changes Changes in State

Kinetic Particle Theory of Matter
matter made up of particles particles are in motion there is space between the particles changes in heat result in changes in particle motion changes in heat result in changes in space between particles

3 Common States of Matter
also 3 common states of water solid, liquid, & gas also BE-condensate & plasma BE-condensate: predicted by Bose and Einstein in the 1920’s and realized in It is a gaseous superfluid cooled to near absolute zero (no motion of atoms). BE-condensates trap light. Plasmas are gases so hot that their molecules are ripped apart. This state is seen in stars.

Solid packed together but vibrate definite shape definite volume
usually dense Kinetic particle theory: very little motion of particles and little space between them. Ice is an example.

Liquid fairly close together able to move in all directions
no definite shape fill the bottom of a container definite volume Kinetic particle theory: more motion of particles and more space between them, allowing them to slide pass one another. Water is an example.

Gas fairly close together able to move in all directions and collide
no definite shape expand to fill any container no definite volume usually low density Kinetic particle theory: a lot of motion of particles and a great deal of space between them. Steam is an example.

How does energy affect changes in state?
Heat is energy. As it is added to matter, it causes the particles to move more and increases space between them. The opposite is true when heat is taken away. HEAT IS ENERGY!

Kinetic Particle Lab To observe the affects of heat on the particles of matter. Materials: 3 containers water (cold, room temperature, & hot) food coloring timer

Lab Questions When you placed dye into the container filled with _?_ water, what did you observe? How long did it take for the dye to completely mix into the _?_ water? In which container did the water mix the fastest? Using the kinetic particle theory, explain what you observed.

Chemical Properties

Chemical Properties characteristics that describe how matter changes or interacts with other kinds of matter: paper burns iron rusts gold does not rust wood rots sodium reacts with water

Chemical Changes changes in chemical properties like…
always changes in the form of matter matter is transformed completely into different materials Unlike physical changes, chemical changes result in entirely new materials being formed. Examples are on next slide.

Chemical Changes cont’d
iron turning into rust in moist air digesting food burning metals in fireworks Iron (Fe) combines easily with Oxygen (O2) to form Iron Oxide. The iron in our blood combines with oxygen to help carry it throughout our bodies.