2 Structure: Scientific Method Problem Research Hypothesis (proposed solution) Design Experiment Variable and control Record Observations Analyze data Conclusion
3 Structure: AtomsNucleus: most of the mass Protons –positive charge Neutrons- neutral Electron Cloud: most of the space Electrons- negative charge MATTER: has mass and takes up space
4 Structure: MatterTypes of Matter Mixtures: no set composition Homogeneous mix Heterogeneous mix Chemicals: set composition pure elements: only 1 kind of atom pure compounds- atoms arranged only 1 way (H2O) Changes in Matter Physical: no change in chemical composition (ex. change in state) Chemical: change in chemical composition (chemical reactions) Chemical Reactions :Conservation of Mass combustion: rapid reaction with oxygen (burning) oxidation: slow reaction with oxygen (rusting) electrolysis: separation of components through electricity Tarnish: metals outer surface reaction with surrounding non metal
5 Structure: Matter Characteristics Physical Characteristics: property observed without changing the substance physical state, color, texture, luster, conductivity, magnetic, flexibility, density, viscosity, malleable, surface tension,ductility, boiling point, melting point etc. Chemical Characteristics: Properties that describe the ability of a substance to change into other substances chemical reactions ( see previous slide) Separation of chemicals uses different properties
6 Structure: Matter4 States of Matter Solid regular pattern no regular pattern Liquid Gas Plasma CONSERVATION OF MASS!!! The amount of the substance does not change
8 Structure: Temperature Lord Kelvin K – absolute temperature scale (no negative values) 0 K is °C and − °F Temperature is measuring the amount of movement energy in a substance. The higher the temperature the more ‘movement energy’.