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On Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one (or more) dependent clauses. In a complex sentence, one idea is generally.

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Presentation on theme: "On Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one (or more) dependent clauses. In a complex sentence, one idea is generally."— Presentation transcript:

1 On Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one (or more) dependent clauses. In a complex sentence, one idea is generally more important than the other one. There are three kinds of dependent clauses: Noun Clauses Adjective Clauses Adverb Clauses

2 Noun clauses I think that he is a good actor. (that-clause) I like where Sue lives. (wh-word clauses) I wonder if he needs help (if/whether clauses) There are three types of noun clauses. Noun Clauses are dependent clauses that function as nouns.

3 Noun clauses can be subjects, objects, object of a preposition, subject complements, or adjective complements: The truth is that Billy is not very smart. Mary wants lo learn about whatever is interesting. He’s happy that he’s learning English. That the world is round is a fact. I don’t know what the answer is. I wonder if you still love me

4 Because a noun clause is dependent, it must be connected to an independent clause to form a complex sentence. A noun clause used as an object is preceded by an independent clause called an introductory clause Introductory clauseNoun clause I wonderif it will rain

5 I know that people have different opinions about capital punishment. I strongly believe that all human beings are equal. Noun clauses used as objects are often the object of a verb: of speaking (say, tell, report) or of mental activity (think, believe, wonder) I

6 Noun clauses: That- clauses I’m sure (that) I have seen her before. That-clauses are introduced by the subordinator that. The word that is often omitted if the meaning is clear without it.

7 Make an original sentence by using It’s … and the given expression. true unfortunate surprising a fact obvious strange too bad unlikely a well-known fact undeniable It is true that plants need water in order to grow

8 Exercise: Now use the given that-clause as the subject of the sentence. Example: That plants need water in order to grow is true.

9 Noun clauses: wh -word clauses Wh- word clauses are dependent noun clauses. They are formed from wh- questions and are introduced by a wh- word such as: who why whatever what how much whichever where how long when which

10 Direct question : Where does she live? Noun clause : I don’t know where she lives. Direct question : Who lives there? Noun clause : I wonder who lives there. Direct question : Who are those men? Noun clause : Please tell me who those men are. Direct question : Whose house is that? Noun clause : Do you know whose house that is?

11 Direct question: What's his name? Indirect question (with a wh-word noun clause): Do you know……? Could you tell me….? Indirect questions are formed of two parts: a polite expression, and a question which has no question subject/verb inversion.

12 The word order in these clauses sometimes causes problems. The word order in a noun clause is like a statement, not like a question. Wh-word clauses always use normal S V statement word order. Also, since they are not questions, the auxiliary verbs do, does, and did disappear.

13 Exercises Look at the underlined part of each sentence and decide if it is a direct question or an indirect question with a noun clause. Add the necessary punctuation and capitalization. 1. I couldn’t hear the teacher what did she say 2. I couldn't hear what the teacher said 3. Where did Tom go no one knows 4. No one knows where Tom went 5. Where Tom went is a secret 6. What does Anna want we need to know

14 7. We need to know what Anna wants 8. What does Alex need do you know 9. Do you know what Alex needs 10. What Alex needs is a new job 11. We talked about what Alex needs 12. What do you need did you talk to your parents about what you need

15 Noun clauses: if / whether clauses Direct question : Will she come? Indirect question (with an if / whether noun clause): I wonder whether she will come. I wonder if she will come. I wonder whether or not she will come. I wonder whether she will come or not. I wonder if she will come or not. Whether she comes or not is unimportant to me. If / whether clauses are noun clauses that are formed from yes / no questions and are introduced by the subordinator whether or if.

16 Noun clauses: Reported Speech “I live in Bristol.” He said that he lived in Bristol. Reported Speech refers to using a noun clause to report what someone said. Reported Speech or Indirect Speech occurs in noun clauses, normally as direct objects.

17 When the reporting verb is in the present tense, there is no change in the tense of the NCl. “I don’t want to come.” He says he doesn’t want to come. But if the reporting verb is in the past, the tense of the verb in the reported speech moves further back into the past. “I’m a police officer.” He said that he was a police officer.

18 Direct Speech Indirect Speech “I’m going to the cinema”, he said. He said (that) he was going to the cinema. She said, “It’s cold” She said it was cold. She said, “I’m teaching English” She said she was teaching English She said,“I’ve been on the web She said she had been on the web since 1999” since 1999. She said, “I’ve been teaching She said she had been teaching English for seven years” English for seven years”. She said, “I taught online She said she had taught online yesterday”. the previous day. She said, “I was teaching earlier” She said she had been teaching earlier.

19 Noun clauses: Reported Speech NO CHANGE: She said, “The lesson had already She said the lesson had started when we arrived”. already started when they arrived. She said, “ I had already been She said she had already teaching for five minutes”. been teaching for five minutes

20 Noun clauses: Reported Speech EXPRESSIONS OF TIME IF REPORTED ON A DIFFERENT DAY this (evening) today these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow that (evening) yesterday those (days) then (a week) before the previous weekend there the following (week) the next / following day

21 Noun clauses: Reported Speech Complete the sentences using the information in the dialogue. 1.- Joanne asked me, “Do you know Dave Clark?” “Yes,” I replied. “I’ve known him for many years. Why do you want to know?” Joanne asked me ______Dave Clark. I replied ______him for many years and asked her why_____.

22 2.- The teacher asked, “Bobby, what is the capital of Australia?” Bobby replied, “I’m not sure, but I think it’s Sydney.” Yesterday in class, Bobby’s teacher asked him _____. He answered _____, but _____

23 Identifying Noun Clauses Read the following from an organization that promotes peace. Underline the noun clauses. “There are many boys here today who look on war as glory, but boys, it is all hell.” Are these words the words of a pacifist, of a conscientious objector, who believes that wars should not be fought by people who don’t believe in war? No, this is an utterance by General William Tecumseh Sherman, a Union general in the American Civil War, who is remembered for his devastating march through the American South and who had often stated unequivocally that ruthlessness in modern war is necessary.

24 Identifying Noun Clauses Who fights in wars? Who thinks that sacrificing one’s life and the lives of others is glorious? While many enter the service as a career, or with patriotic zeal during a war, many more are conscripted by their governments. This means compulsory enrollment in the armed forces, in war or in peace. That all a nation’s able-bodied men give compulsory military service was an idea introduced in the late eighteenth century during the French Revolution: it enabled Napoleon, several years later, to raise huge armies.

25 Identifying Noun Clauses Our organization asks why people go to war. We question whether any territorial imperative, commercial advantage, or religious belief can justify the loss of even one life. And because war is wrong, we must do whatever we can to end conscription everywhere. We firmly maintain that no cause, however just, is rationale enough to force a man to fight to kill.

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