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An integrated humanities core project about Singapore history.

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Presentation on theme: "An integrated humanities core project about Singapore history."— Presentation transcript:

1 an integrated humanities core project about Singapore history

2 1963:Merger

3  Political ◦ Full independence from British ◦ Too small to be independent states  Economical ◦ Little natural resources ◦ Economy depended on trade ◦ Increase in free trade ◦ Greater economic growth ◦ More jobs created

4  Security ◦ Curb communism threat  Economic ◦ Most important port in SEA  Singapore ◦ Borneo territories rich in natural resources ◦ Greater growth for Malaya

5  Lansdowne Committee ◦ New system of government for Sabah & Sarawak ◦ Details of the new Constitution of Malaysia ◦ Vice-Chairman: Malaya DPM Tun Abdul Razak

6  PAP government welcomed proposals ◦ Central government at Kuala Lumpur  Campaigns ◦ Support for proposed merger ◦ Strong opposition from Barisan Sosialis  Referendum ◦ Different choices of merger  71% in favour of Singapore joining Malaysia

7  Referendum (01 Sep 1962) ◦ First & only held in Singapore to date ◦ Called for people to vote on terms of merger ◦ 3 options; No option to vote against merger

8 ◦ Option A  All Singapore citizens would automatically become citizens of Malaysia, and Singapore would retain a degree of autonomy and state power ◦ Option B  Singapore would become a federal state with no more autonomy than the other states would ◦ Option C  Singapore would enter on terms no less favourable than the Borneo territories, Sabah & Sarawak

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10 ◦ Barisan Sosialis alleged that the people didn’t support merger ◦ Referendum did not have an option objecting the merger  No one legitimately raised the issue in the Legislative Assembly ◦ Methods debatable

11 ◦ Barisan Sosialis strongly against referendum ◦ Called for boycott of referendum  Telling supporters to submit blank votes in protest ◦ 26% of votes left blank ◦ Move anticipated by ruling PAP government ◦ Insertion of clause stating that all blank or defaced votes would be counted as a vote for Option A

12  Operation Coldstore (2 Feb 1963) ◦ Security operation ◦ At least 111 anti-government left-wing activists arrested & detained, including members from Barisan Sosialis ◦ Malaysia had strong anti-communist policy ◦ Tunku insisted Singapore round up all pro- communists before merger occurred ◦ Heavy blow to Barisan Sosialis ◦ SATU deregistered  NTUC main trade union

13  Initially undecided ◦ Politically & economically backward ◦ Feared domination by bigger states in Federation ◦ Independence before merger  Tungku Abdul Rahman ◦ Convinced leaders of benefits ◦ British unlikely to grant independence  Malaysian Solidarity Consultative Committee ◦ Work out practical steps towards Formation of Malaysia ◦ Collated information from representatives ◦ Led by Datuk Donald (Fraud) Stephen, North Borneo unofficial

14  Initially in favour of merger ◦ Opposition within Brunei  July 1963: Brunei against merger

15  Oct 1961: British support obtained  Nov 1961: Official approval of merger  Britain retain military control in Singapore

16  Merger delayed until 16 Sep 1963  Strong objection from countries

17  Claimed ownership of Sabah  Once belonged to Sultan of Sulu  Leased to British in 1878  Sulu become part of Philippines  Sabah should follow  1963: Philippines broke off diplomatic relations with Malaysia

18  Malaya take over Borneo  Sabah & Sarawak forced to join Malaysia  Jan 1963: President Sukarno launched policy of Confrontation against Malaysia & British  31 Aug 1963: Singapore granted independence  Lee Kuan Yew-led PAP govern Singapore until formation of Malaysia

19  Results: 70% of Sabah & Sarawak in favour of merger  Indonesia & Philippines refused to accept report  Indonesia suspended trade with Malaysia & Singapore  Commonwealth troops from Britain, Australia & New Zealand assisted

20  Made up of 14 states, including Singapore  Each state had its own state government  Malaya & Singapore  West Malaysia ◦ Later renamed Peninsular Malaysia  North Borneo renamed Sabah  Sabah & Sarawak  East Malaysia

21  Singapore given special rights & powers ◦ Elections to elect state government  Singapore retain control of education, labour policies & finance  Singaporeans not automatically Malaysians ◦ Strict citizenship laws

22  14-pointed star & 14 stripes represent 14 states that made up Malaysia

23 1965:Separation

24  State Government of Singapore could not agree on certain matters with Central Government  The Alliance  Committed to preserve old order, tradition & class privilege  PAP  Social reforms for a more just & equal society

25  Common market ◦ Singapore hoped for one  Promote Singapore’s industries & create jobs ◦ Central Government not convinced of benefits ◦ Singapore did not benefit as much as expected from merger with Malaya

26  Contributions to Federal Treasury ◦ Dec 1964: Federal Minister of Finance increased Singapore’s contribution from 40% to 60% ◦ Threatened to divert new industries to Malaya ◦ PAP refused to increase  Singapore was bearing its fair share ◦ Central Government pressed for $50m gift for development of states ◦ Singapore agreed loan of $150m to finance projects in Sabah & Sarawak

27  Imposition of taxes & quotas ◦ Imposition on duty on imports of light bulbs ◦ Central Government indirectly protecting light bulb industry in Malaysia ◦ Quotas imposed on textiles exported to Britain ◦ Lower quota for Singapore ◦ Singapore Finance Minister Goh Keng Swee threatened to boycott British goods ◦ Became clear that Singapore couldn’t decide future directions for economy within merger

28  Presence of the South African Consulate in Singapore ◦ Tunku led Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference in trade boycott of South Africa because of her apartheid policy  Bank of China & Bank Negara Indonesia operating in Singapore ◦ Representing Chinese communist government ◦ Bank of China believed to channel funds for communist subversive activities ◦ Closure ordered  PAP refused  Hinder trade with China

29  1963 September General Elections ◦ Alliance leaders wanted Malays to gain more seats in Singapore Legislative Assembly  Supported UMNO-Alliance leaders ◦ Tunku Abdul Rahman called on Singapore Malays to vote for UMNO  UMNO failed to gain any seat ◦ PAP swept 37 of 51 seats  PAP gaining support ◦ Alliance leaders in KL bitter about defeat  Accused Singapore Malays of being traitors

30  1964 Federal Elections ◦ PAP announced taking part in Federal Elections  Angered Malaysia ◦ PAP believed it could build a prosperous & peaceful Malaysia ◦ Tunku Abdul Rahman accused PAP of not keeping is promise to keep out of Federal Elections

31  Fiery Exchanges ◦ Racial tensions from 1964 elections ◦ Malay extremists stepped up anti-PAP campaigns  PAP accused of oppressing Malays in Singapore ◦ PAP criticised KL government’s policy of granting special rights to Malays in Malayan states ◦ PM Lee Kuan Yew warned of the danger & stressed importance of nation building based on equality ◦ Alliance suspected PAP’s intentions in criticising policy  Harbouring ambitions of replacing it

32  Singapore Malays unhappy with PAP treatment  UMNO held meeting for them to express dissatisfaction  Othman Wok planned to get all Malay organisations to meet to discuss problems affecting Malay community  Syed Jaafar Albar accused PAP of oppressing Malays  Called for boycott of Othman Wok’s meeting

33  Attacks from both side of Causeway led to 1964 racial riot in Singapore

34  1964 Racial Riots (21 Jul 1964) ◦ 25,000 Malays took part in a Muslim procession in Geylang district to celebrate Prophet Mohammed’s birthday ◦ Lasted 11 days  At least 22 killed & 461 injured ◦ Whole island under curfew ◦ Barricades set on roads; Soldiers patrolled ◦ Curfew lifted a few hours daily to allow people to buy food ◦ PM Lee discouraged grassroots from stirring discord for selfish political gains ◦ 2 nd communal violence  2 Sep 1964

35  Tunku blamed riots on Indonesians  Trying to crush Malaysia  2 Sep riot due to Indonesian provocation  Extremists blamed PM Lee & PAP  PM Lee met Tunku in KL  Agreed to avoid political discussions on sensitive issues which would arouse communal feelings  Basic differences remained unresolvedYusof bin Ishak appealed for forbearance  Tension reached breaking point  Fighting broke out between Malay & Chinese youths

36  PAP maintained aim to build society based on equality  Refused to be bias government  Alliance leaders appeared to rule Malaysia mainly for the good of 1 community  PAP insisted on building a Malaysia meant for all communities & cultures  This meant abolition of special rights & privileges of Malays & equal treatment of all Malaysian citizens, regardless of race or religion

37  May 1965: PAP united opposition parties to form Malaysian Solidarity Convention  Fight for equal treatment of all races  MSC aimed to end communal politics & win political affiliation  Alliance leaders unhappy with PM Lee

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40  Content: “Impact: History of South-East Asia” by Yeo Hwee Joo  Content:  Content:  Content:  Content:  Microsoft Clipart  Merge 1:  Merge 2:  Merge 3: this-a-merger.jpg  Singapore flag: J3M0/s1600/Singapore_flag1.jpg  Merge 4: merge_sign.jpg

41  Malaysia flag:  Brunei flag: DfeEoFaM/s1600/brunei+flag.jpg  Union Jack: small.jpg  Opposition: economiques.fr/blogs/daubenton/files/opposition.jpg  Philippines flag:  Indonesia flag: esia%20Flag.png  United Nations logo:

42  Malaysia land:  Malaysia coat-of-arms:  Separation: accountingwebus/images/Separation.jpg  Malaysian flag: the-world/malaysia-flag-large.gif  Boundary: Google Earth  PAP logo:  Tax comic: good-grief2.gif  Singapore flag:  Malaysia flag:

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