Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Singapore: Merger & Separation

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Singapore: Merger & Separation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Singapore: Merger & Separation
an integrated humanities core project about Singapore history

2 1963: Merger

3 .reasons [Singapore & Borneo]
Political Full independence from British Too small to be independent states Economical Little natural resources Economy depended on trade Increase in free trade Greater economic growth More jobs created

4 .reasons [Malaysia] Security Economic Curb communism threat
Most important port in SEA  Singapore Borneo territories rich in natural resources Greater growth for Malaya

5 .developments Lansdowne Committee
New system of government for Sabah & Sarawak Details of the new Constitution of Malaysia Vice-Chairman: Malaya DPM Tun Abdul Razak

6 .reactions [Singapore]
PAP government welcomed proposals Central government at Kuala Lumpur Campaigns Support for proposed merger Strong opposition from Barisan Sosialis Referendum Different choices of merger 71% in favour of Singapore joining Malaysia

7 .reactions [Singapore]
Referendum (01 Sep 1962) First & only held in Singapore to date Called for people to vote on terms of merger 3 options; No option to vote against merger

8 .reactions [Singapore]
Option A  All Singapore citizens would automatically become citizens of Malaysia, and Singapore would retain a degree of autonomy and state power Option B  Singapore would become a federal state with no more autonomy than the other states would Option C  Singapore would enter on terms no less favourable than the Borneo territories, Sabah & Sarawak Which do you think garnered the most votes?

9 .reactions [Singapore]
Was everyone agreeable to the merger? Why were there blank votes?

10 .reactions [Singapore]
Barisan Sosialis alleged that the people didn’t support merger Referendum did not have an option objecting the merger  No one legitimately raised the issue in the Legislative Assembly Methods debatable

11 .reactions [Singapore]
Barisan Sosialis strongly against referendum Called for boycott of referendum  Telling supporters to submit blank votes in protest 26% of votes left blank Move anticipated by ruling PAP government Insertion of clause stating that all blank or defaced votes would be counted as a vote for Option A

12 .reactions [Singapore]
Operation Coldstore (2 Feb 1963) Security operation At least 111 anti-government left-wing activists arrested & detained, including members from Barisan Sosialis Malaysia had strong anti-communist policy Tunku insisted Singapore round up all pro- communists before merger occurred Heavy blow to Barisan Sosialis SATU deregistered  NTUC main trade union

13 .reactions [Sabah & Sarawak]
Initially undecided Politically & economically backward Feared domination by bigger states in Federation Independence before merger Tungku Abdul Rahman Convinced leaders of benefits British unlikely to grant independence Malaysian Solidarity Consultative Committee Work out practical steps towards Formation of Malaysia Collated information from representatives Led by Datuk Donald (Fraud) Stephen, North Borneo unofficial

14 .reactions [Brunei] Initially in favour of merger
Opposition within Brunei July 1963: Brunei against merger

15 .reactions [Britain] Britain retain military control in Singapore
Oct 1961: British support obtained Nov 1961: Official approval of merger Britain retain military control in Singapore

16 .oppositions Merger delayed until 16 Sep 1963
Strong objection from countries

17 .oppositions [Philippines]
Claimed ownership of Sabah Once belonged to Sultan of Sulu  Leased to British in 1878 Sulu become part of Philippines  Sabah should follow 1963: Philippines broke off diplomatic relations with Malaysia

18 .oppositions [Indonesia]
Malaya take over Borneo Sabah & Sarawak forced to join Malaysia Jan 1963: President Sukarno launched policy of Confrontation against Malaysia & British 31 Aug 1963: Singapore granted independence Lee Kuan Yew-led PAP govern Singapore until formation of Malaysia

19 .the.un.survey Results: 70% of Sabah & Sarawak in favour of merger
Indonesia & Philippines refused to accept report Indonesia suspended trade with Malaysia & Singapore Commonwealth troops from Britain, Australia & New Zealand assisted

20 .federation.of.malaysia
Made up of 14 states, including Singapore Each state had its own state government Malaya & Singapore  West Malaysia Later renamed Peninsular Malaysia North Borneo renamed Sabah Sabah & Sarawak  East Malaysia

21 .federation.of.malaysia
Singapore given special rights & powers Elections to elect state government Singapore retain control of education, labour policies & finance Singaporeans not automatically Malaysians Strict citizenship laws

22 .Malaysian.flag 14-pointed star & 14 stripes represent 14 states that made up Malaysia

23 1965: Separation

24 .reasons State Government of Singapore could not agree on certain matters with Central Government The Alliance  Committed to preserve old order, tradition & class privilege PAP  Social reforms for a more just & equal society

25 .reasons {Economic Issues}
Common market Singapore hoped for one  Promote Singapore’s industries & create jobs Central Government not convinced of benefits Singapore did not benefit as much as expected from merger with Malaya

26 .reasons {Economic Issues}
Contributions to Federal Treasury Dec 1964: Federal Minister of Finance increased Singapore’s contribution from 40% to 60% Threatened to divert new industries to Malaya PAP refused to increase  Singapore was bearing its fair share Central Government pressed for $50m gift for development of states Singapore agreed loan of $150m to finance projects in Sabah & Sarawak

27 .reasons {Economic Issues}
Imposition of taxes & quotas Imposition on duty on imports of light bulbs Central Government indirectly protecting light bulb industry in Malaysia Quotas imposed on textiles exported to Britain Lower quota for Singapore Singapore Finance Minister Goh Keng Swee threatened to boycott British goods Became clear that Singapore couldn’t decide future directions for economy within merger

28 .reasons {Foreign Policies}
Presence of the South African Consulate in Singapore Tunku led Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference in trade boycott of South Africa because of her apartheid policy Bank of China & Bank Negara Indonesia operating in Singapore Representing Chinese communist government Bank of China believed to channel funds for communist subversive activities Closure ordered  PAP refused  Hinder trade with China

29 .reasons {Political Issues}
1963 September General Elections Alliance leaders wanted Malays to gain more seats in Singapore Legislative Assembly  Supported UMNO-Alliance leaders Tunku Abdul Rahman called on Singapore Malays to vote for UMNO  UMNO failed to gain any seat PAP swept 37 of 51 seats  PAP gaining support Alliance leaders in KL bitter about defeat  Accused Singapore Malays of being traitors

30 .reasons {Political Issues}
1964 Federal Elections PAP announced taking part in Federal Elections  Angered Malaysia PAP believed it could build a prosperous & peaceful Malaysia Tunku Abdul Rahman accused PAP of not keeping is promise to keep out of Federal Elections

31 .reasons {Political Issues}
Fiery Exchanges Racial tensions from 1964 elections Malay extremists stepped up anti-PAP campaigns  PAP accused of oppressing Malays in Singapore PAP criticised KL government’s policy of granting special rights to Malays in Malayan states PM Lee Kuan Yew warned of the danger & stressed importance of nation building based on equality Alliance suspected PAP’s intentions in criticising policy  Harbouring ambitions of replacing it

32 .reasons {Racial Tensions}
Singapore Malays unhappy with PAP treatment UMNO held meeting for them to express dissatisfaction Othman Wok planned to get all Malay organisations to meet to discuss problems affecting Malay community Syed Jaafar Albar accused PAP of oppressing Malays  Called for boycott of Othman Wok’s meeting

33 .reasons {Racial Tensions}
Attacks from both side of Causeway led to racial riot in Singapore

34 .reasons {Racial Tensions}
1964 Racial Riots (21 Jul 1964) 25,000 Malays took part in a Muslim procession in Geylang district to celebrate Prophet Mohammed’s birthday Lasted 11 days  At least 22 killed & 461 injured Whole island under curfew Barricades set on roads; Soldiers patrolled Curfew lifted a few hours daily to allow people to buy food PM Lee discouraged grassroots from stirring discord for selfish political gains 2nd communal violence  2 Sep 1964

35 .reasons {Racial Tensions}
Tunku blamed riots on Indonesians  Trying to crush Malaysia 2 Sep riot due to Indonesian provocation Extremists blamed PM Lee & PAP PM Lee met Tunku in KL  Agreed to avoid political discussions on sensitive issues which would arouse communal feelings Basic differences remained unresolvedYusof bin Ishak appealed for forbearance Tension reached breaking point  Fighting broke out between Malay & Chinese youths

36 .reasons {Malaysian Malaysia}
PAP maintained aim to build society based on equality  Refused to be bias government Alliance leaders appeared to rule Malaysia mainly for the good of 1 community PAP insisted on building a Malaysia meant for all communities & cultures This meant abolition of special rights & privileges of Malays & equal treatment of all Malaysian citizens, regardless of race or religion

37 .reasons {Malaysian Malaysia}
May 1965: PAP united opposition parties to form Malaysian Solidarity Convention  Fight for equal treatment of all races MSC aimed to end communal politics & win political affiliation Alliance leaders unhappy with PM Lee

38 Singapore  Malaysia

39 Separation Video

40 .bibliography Content: “Impact: History of South-East Asia” by Yeo Hwee Joo Content: Content: Content: Content: Microsoft Clipart Merge 1: Merge 2: Merge 3: this-a-merger.jpg Singapore flag: J3M0/s1600/Singapore_flag1.jpg Merge 4: merge_sign.jpg

41 .bibliography Malaysia flag: Brunei flag: DfeEoFaM/s1600/brunei+flag.jpg Union Jack: small.jpg Opposition: Philippines flag: Indonesia flag: esia%20Flag.png United Nations logo:

42 .bibliography Malaysia land: Malaysia coat-of-arms: Separation: accountingwebus/images/Separation.jpg Malaysian flag: the-world/malaysia-flag-large.gif Boundary: Google Earth PAP logo: Tax comic: good-grief2.gif Singapore flag: Malaysia flag:

43 The End Thank you for your undivided attention!

44 Any Questions?

Download ppt "Singapore: Merger & Separation"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google