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Chapter 3: Formation of Malaysia (2)

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1 Chapter 3: Formation of Malaysia (2)
Malaysian Studies Chapter 3: Formation of Malaysia (2)

2 Idea for Malaysia has been brought up by many including:
The Idea of Malaysia Idea for Malaysia has been brought up by many including: David Marshall (1955) Ghazali Shafie (1954) Tan Cheng Lock (1955) Lee Kuan Yew (1959)

3 The Idea of Malaysia Tunku Abdul Rahman Starts voicing it in 1955
Willing of accepting not only Singapore but Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak Different reactions from many

4 Why Form Malaysia? Forming a country involves big changes
This is especially so in Malaysia’s case But why form Malaysia? Several factors led to Tunku’s decision to form Malaysia

5 Why Form Malaysia? Independence through unification
Common understanding for development Ethnic balance and unity Collective fight against communism Economic co-operation United in international relations

6 Why Form Malaysia? Tunku’s idea was widely accepted because:
The suggestion was concrete and had a clear vision Positive comments from media in future member countries Follow up action & surveys helped convinced the people

7 Reactions - Malaya Early 1950s – not really keen to include Singapore
However, with Sabah & Sarawak joining, the idea for unification became popular PAS opposed the idea claiming Malays would lose out esp. in economy MALPHILINDO

8 Reactions - Singapore Generally well-accepted earlier on
Lee Kuan Yew was most interested with the idea Later, United People’s Party objected the idea and fought the People’s Action Party regarding the idea However, this made Tunku and Lee’s determination rise to get the idea realized

9 Reactions - Brunei Not unanimously accepted
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin was very interested with idea Opposed by A.M.Azahari (Brunei People’s Party) A.M.Azahari wants to create North Kalimantan (Sabah+Sarawak+Brunei)

10 Reactions – Sabah & Sarawak
People’s reaction was most encouraging No strong opposition was shown Why? Free from British rule To combat communism

11 The Formation of Malaysia
People’s reactions are different Anxiety, uncertainty and doubts about the new country are questions people have inside their minds Therefore, Kuala Lumpur created a specially-formed Committee to verify and answer the people’s questions

12 The Formation of Malaysia
Other actions are also taken Singapore Referendum and the UN Investigation Consulting with the British, Philippines and Indonesia Cobbold Commision

13 The Formation of Malaysia
Once it is proven that the majority wants to form Malaysia, the form and structure of the new nation was determined Inter-Government Landsdowne Committee Used the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya as basis for the Constitution of Malaysia

14 Brunei’s Withdrawal 9th July 1963 Brunei pulled out of the Federation
The Federation was completely taken by surprise by it Some “give and take” issues are said to be the cause of the decision

15 Reasons for Brunei’s Withdrawal
Number of seats in Legislature & Parliament Control on oil and other minerals Monetary autonomy Brunei’s earlier investments Method of taxation Authority in education and welfare Matters of religion Citizenship

16 Reasons for Brunei’s Withdrawal
Brunei’s security guarantee Position of Sultans and Brunei’s status within Malaysia

17 Formation of Malaysia 8 July 1963 Malaysian Agreement signed in London
16 September 1963 Malaysia officially proclaimed

18 External Opposition Opposition for the formation Malaysia came from Indonesia and Philippines Why Protest? Sarawak – part of Indonesia Sabah – part of Philippines

19 Philippines severed diplomatic ties with Malaya
External Opposition Philippines severed diplomatic ties with Malaya Indonesia launched a movement of confrontation against Malaysia which continued until August 1966

20 Singapore’s Withdrawal
Singapore-Kuala Lumpur’s relation starts to deteriorate after the first Malaysian general Election (1964) PAP leaders belittled MCA MCA sees it as PAP’s intention to take over MCA’s role of protecting the interests of the Chinese community UMNO are also offended by PAP’s action

21 Singapore’s Withdrawal
Effects of the 1st General Elections: Chinese confused Malays generally suspicious of Lee Kuan Yew This caused riots to happen twice in 21/7/1964 and 2/9/1964 Tunku and Lee’s relationship deteriorate

22 Singapore’s Withdrawal
To save the situation, Tunku states Lee’s idea of separation may be the only solution to end the stressful situation 7 August 1965 – Separation agreement signed between Tunku and Lee 9 August 1965 – Parliament passed the Separation Act and Singapore finally left Malaysia

23 Conclusion The history of formation of Malaysia is not long but full of interesting events Issues such as interest of future member countries, internal problems, cooperation and conflict are some of the lessons we learnt from the formation of this glorious nation

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