Presentation on theme: "JOINING JOINING Challenges facing the new government –newly-elected government inherited many problems from the British –3 most pressing problems : Unemployment,"— Presentation transcript:
Challenges facing the new government –newly-elected government inherited many problems from the British –3 most pressing problems : Unemployment, poor housing and education JOINING
Thinking of Merger (1)For more trade and more jobs – S’pore govt felt that the best way to resolve the unemployment problem was to merge with Malaya – Not all goods produced in Singapore could be sold in the local market – a bigger market was needed – Malaya could be that market SINGAPORE’S REASONS JOINING
What can you tell about the problems facing the new government in 1959?
Problem was the Malayan import and export tariffs COMMON MARKET Creation of a COMMON MARKET – Within this area, goods could be bought and sold freely without being taxed – The resulting increase in trade would create more jobs for the people JOINING
(2)For Independence – Singapore hoped that through the merger, she would become completely free from British control – British were not willing to grant independence.Why? – Mainly because of the communist problem – Britain would be more comfortable to grant independence to Singapore after merger with anti- communist Malaya JOINING
Malaya’s initial reluctance Why? –Upset in racial balance –Pro-communist elements inSingapore (Details on pg. 180)
SECURITY Main reason was for SECURITY –the Malayan PM was worried about the communists growing more powerful in Singapore – Might grow too strong for the PAP government to deal with Why was this a matter of concern for Malaya? – Why was this a matter of concern for Malaya? – Worries of a communist government at their doorstep – communists could use Singapore as a base to spread communism throughout Malaya MALAYA’S REASONS JOINING
Tunku’s plan to prevent this from happening was to allow Singapore to join Malaya This merger was often referred to as a marriage of convenience. JOINING How did they propose to deal with the issue of possible Chinese dominance?
27 May 1961 : Tunku visited Singapore Suggested creating a new federation (later called Malaysia) To include Sabah and Sarawak (British colonies) Why? Britain did not object. Why? Britain wanted to grant independence to these colonies but were worried about their survival Believed that stability of these states would be secured if they joined Malaysia PROPOSAL FOR THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA JOINING
LKY and most of the PAP leaders welcomed the proposal Why? However, the pro-communists members of the PAP were against the idea of merger. Why? With merger, the anti-communist government would probably arrest them REACTIONS IN SINGAPORE JOINING
Lim Chin Siong The pro-communists led by Lim Chin Siong attempted to capture the leadership of the PAP so that they could reject merger Internal struggle for power within the PAP The communists won over the support of some PAP Legislative Assemblymen But this did not help them to overthrow the leadership of LKY CHALLENGE FOR THE PAP LEADERSHIP JOINING
They failed and the 13 Assemblymen were expelled from the PAP Barisan Sosialis Formed a party called Barisan Sosialis (Socialist Front) in Aug 1961 Chairman : Lee Siew Choh; Sec-Gen : Lim Chin Siong CHALLENGE FOR THE PAP LEADERSHIP JOINING
Meanwhile, LKY and the Tunku held talks on Singapore’s entry into Malaysia What were some of the terms of agreement of merger? CHALLENGE FOR THE PAP LEADERSHIP JOINING What can you infer about the merger from the photograph?
Barisan Sosialis was against merger Which term upset them? Started a campaign to persuade the people not to support the government’s plan referendum The government conducted a referendum on 1 Sep 1962 to find out the people’s choice THE PEOPLE’S DECISION JOINING Why do you think the people went along with the PAP’s option?
Result : 71% supported the PAP government’s plan It was a victory for the PAP government over the pro- communists Also showed that the majority of the people supported the PAP government THE PEOPLE’S DECISION JOINING
Cobbold Commission : Set up by Malayan and British Government Task to find out whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak were interested in joining Malaysia Result Aug 1962 : Only 1/3 of the people in both colonies were not in favour of joining Malaysia REACTIONS IN SABAH & SARAWAK JOINING
Tunku’s government began talks with the Sultan about Brunei joining Malaysia Both sides were unable to come to an agreement on the terms of Brunei’s entry Brunei thus did not join Malaysia REACTIONS IN BRUNEI JOINING
When Tunku’s proposal surfaced in 1961, there was no objection from President Sukarno He changed his mind in 1963 and said he opposed the idea of Malaysia 20 Jan 1963 : Policy of Confrontation against the formation of Malaysia Until Sep 1963, it took the form of harsh words REACTIONS IN INDONESIA JOINING
Why did Sukarno oppose the formation of Malaysia? 1.Sabah & Sarawak should come under the control of Indonesia instead of Malaysia 2.He was also influenced by the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) which was against the anti- communist government in Malaya 3.The Confrontation policy diverted the people’s attention from the problems they were facing as a result of Indonesia’s economic policies REACTIONS IN INDONESIA JOINING
The Philippines objected as it claimed that Sabah rightfully belonged to them But it did not have enough evidence to prove its case REACTIONS IN THE PHILIPPINES JOINING
THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA JOINING General agreement between Tunku and LKY for Singapore’s entry into Malaysia However, there were still some differences to be sorted out What were these differences? What were these differences?
THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA JOINING What were the main areas of disagreement?
THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA JOINING Both sides were unable to resolve the differences A final round of talks was arranged in London for both sides to reach an agreement The Malayan negotiators were told to break off the talks if a solution was not found Singapore would then be left out of Malaysia if the talks failed The two sides finally reached a general agreement
THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA JOINING What sort of compromise was reached?
SIGNING OF THE MALAYSIA AGREEMENT JOINING With the differences between Singapore & Malaya settled, delegates from Sabah and Sarawak arrived to sign the Malaysia Agreement 31 Aug 1963 According to the Agreement, Malaysia would be formed on 31 Aug 1963 However, this caused stronger opposition from Indonesia and the Philippines
SIGNING OF THE MALAYSIA AGREEMENT JOINING Tunku agreed to a peaceful solution : – A UN mission (the Cobbold Commission) would be sent to Sabah and Sarawak to find out whether their people are in favour of joining Malaysia Both Indonesia and the Philippines were happy with this proposal.Why?
SIGNING OF THE MALAYSIA AGREEMENT JOINING They believed that the people would reject the proposal On 14 Sep 1963, the UN team reported that the majority of the people were in favour What were the reactions in the Philippines and Indonesia?
SIGNING OF THE MALAYSIA AGREEMENT JOINING Both Indonesia and the Philippines were most unhappy Broke off relations with Malaysia Confrontation became more serious Indonesians launched armed raids into Sabah and Sarawak Their agents also disrupted life in Singapore by setting off bombs in public places
MALAYSIA DAY JOINING 16 Sep 1963 : New nation of Malaysia came into existence Made up of 14 states 11 from Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore