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Initiating Question Think to yourself… what are the three necessary components of independent clauses? **If you’re struggling, think about ANYTHING you.

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Presentation on theme: "Initiating Question Think to yourself… what are the three necessary components of independent clauses? **If you’re struggling, think about ANYTHING you."— Presentation transcript:

1 Initiating Question Think to yourself… what are the three necessary components of independent clauses? **If you’re struggling, think about ANYTHING you know about independent clauses.

2 Independent and Dependent Clauses

3 Independent Clauses— SENTENCES! Contain: Subject (example: The boy) Verb (example: hits) Complete thought (example: The boy hits the ball). Examples: Stefan carried the ball to his sister. Elisabeth cried. They smiled.

4 Dependent Clauses—NOT COMPLETE SENTENCES! Are… Groups of words that contain subjects and verbs but DO NOT express complete thoughts—begin with subordinating conjunctions Examples: When I am sixteen Although it is warm outside Because Joseph lied

5 Why Are Clauses Important? They express information in different ways. They can be combined into various types of sentences!

6 Types of Sentences Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-Complex

7 Simple Sentences Contain… 1 Independent Clause 0 Dependent Clauses Examples: My sister enjoys singing with you. They behaved like monsters. I looked for Henry and Agatha at the cafeteria.

8 Compound Sentences Contain… 2 (or more) Independent Clauses Comma + Coordinating Conjunction (or semicolon) 0 Dependent Clauses Examples: I like babysitting, but those kids are terrible! George likes to sing, and I like to dance. I was locked out of the house, so I cried.

9 Complex Sentences Contain… 1 Independent Clause 1 (or more) Dependent Clause (before or after IC) If DC is first, use a comma If IC is first, don’t use a comma Examples: When the bell rang, the students ran to their seats. The students ran to their seats when the bell rang.

10 Compound-Complex Sentences Contain… 2 (or more) Independent Clauses 1 (or more) Dependent Clause Examples: When the bell rang, the students ran to their seats, and the teacher began the lesson. Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with me.

11 How Can Knowing the Types of Sentences Help Our Writing? We can vary our syntax (sentence structure) by using different types of sentences. Varying sentence structures (and lengths) can make our writing more engaging.

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13 Colons 1.Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list We learned many writing fundamentals: grammar, punctuation, style, and voice. 2.Use the colon to introduce a quotation. Shakespeare urged others to be original and authentic: “To thine own self be true.” 3.Use the colon to follow the salutation of a business letter (but use a comma with personal communication) Dear Mr. Robinson: 4.Time 4:30 5.Subtitles Mario Kart: Super Circuit

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15 Source

16 Semicolons 1.Use a semicolon to connect two independent clauses that are related to each other…can be used with a conjunctive adverb (i.e. however, therefore, nonetheless, subsequently, thus, etc.) I am a student at Greer Middle College; my school is the best! My brother is a student at Greer Middle College; however, I attend Wade Hampton.

17 Semicolons Continued 2.Use a semicolon as a “super comma” with a list of items separated by commas Johnny has been to several big cities: Las Vegas, Nevada; Atlanta, Georgia; New York City, New York; and Los Angeles, California.

18 Semicolon Practice 1.Write a sentence using a semicolon to combine two independent clauses. 2.Write a sentence using a semicolon to combine two independent clauses with a conjunctive adverb. 3.Write a sentence using a semicolon to separate items (with commas) in a list.

19 ERRORS IN COMBINING INDEPENDENT CLAUSES

20 Run-on Sentences Run-on sentences occur when writers combine independent clauses WITH NOTHING BETWEEN THEM. Example: I love writing papers I would write one every day if I could. Give me the manual it can tell us what to do. It is a beautiful day let’s go outside!

21 Run-on Sentence Corrections 4 Ways to Correct Run-on Sentences 1.Use a period It’s a beautiful day. Let’s go outside! 2.Use a semicolon It’s a beautiful day; let’s go outside! 3.Use a comma + coordinating conjunction It’s a beautiful day, so let’s go outside! 4.Use a subordinating conjunction (to make an independent clause dependent) Because it’s a beautiful day, let’s go outside!

22 Run-On Correction Practice Correct the following run-on sentences. 1.This isn’t a great playground however, the kids still love it. 2.The baseball team lost Saturday they just couldn’t hit! 3.I’m not a good babysitter kids really annoy me. 4.The best part of life is the people in it that’s what my mom always says. 5.I cooked last night it was a monumental event!

23 Run-On Correction Answers Correct the following run-on sentences. 1.This isn’t a great playground; however, the kids still love it. 2.The baseball team lost Saturday because they just couldn’t hit! 3.I’m not a good babysitter; kids really annoy me. 4.The best part of life is the people in it; that’s what my mom always says. 5.I cooked last night. It was a monumental event!

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25 Comma Splices Comma splices occur when writers combine independent clauses with ONLY A COMMA. Example: Pizza is the best, I would eat one every day if I could. I like to drive, hopefully I will have a motorcycle soon. Fall is coming soon, the leaves look great when they change colors.

26 Comma Splice Corrections 4 Ways to Correct Comma Splices 1.Use a period instead of a comma Pizza is the best. I would eat it every day if I could! 2.Use a semicolon instead of a comma Pizza is the best; I would eat it every day if I could! 3.Add a coordinating conjunction to the comma Pizza is the best, so I would eat it every day if I could! 4.Use a subordinating conjunction (to make an independent clause dependent) Because pizza is the best, I would eat it every day if I could.

27 Commas Splice Correction Practice Correct the following comma splices in two different ways. 1.I didn’t like the movie, it was way too long. 2.She and Jerry are getting married in the fall, they didn’t want a summer wedding. 3.My favorite bands are all really loud, playing loud music is good for stress relief. Source

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29 Sentence Fragments A fragment fails to be a sentence because it cannot stand by itself—does not contain an independent clause. Does not have subject + verb + complete thought Fragments include: Dependent clauses by themselves When the boy got home from school. Descriptive phrases that don’t have subjects and/or verbs Working hard to make good grades in the class. Clauses with only part of a verb phrase Some of the athletes playing on the court.

30 Correcting Sentence Fragments To correct sentence fragments, simply insert the missing parts of the sentence (subject, verb, and/or complete thought). Examples: When the boy got home from school.  When the boy got home from school, we lay down on his bed. Working hard to make good grades in the class.  Working hard to make good grades in the class, Johnny learned that hard work pays off. Some of the athletes playing on the court.  Some of the athletes were playing on the court.

31 Practice: Correcting Fragments Add to these fragments to make them complete sentences. 1.Even though the bus was late. 2.Running and ducking for cover. 3.Tiffany’s project, which she completed in three hours.

32 Practice: Possible Answers Add to these fragments to make them complete sentences. 1.Even though the bus was late, Jeremy still made it to school on time. 2.The soldiers were running and ducking for cover. 3.Tiffany’s project, which she completed in three hours, lacked some details.

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34 CS, R-O, SF Practice Identify the following as either COMMA SPLICE, RUN-ON SENTENCE, SENTENCE FRAGMENT, or NO ERROR. 1.Mrs. Jones is a new teacher in our school she is not a principal. 2.The student works very hard, however, the tests are difficult. 3.Although his efforts in the class were not rewarded. 4.John and Marcy like to eat. 5.Alex and Joanna went to the concert, it was awesome! 6.Running behind on their way to school. 7.Scout likes to beat up boys Jem is quiet and courageous. 8.Because the book is so good, I couldn’t put it down!

35 CS, R-O, SF Practice Answers Identify the following as either COMMA SPLICE, RUN-ON SENTENCE, SENTENCE FRAGMENT, or NO ERROR. 1.Mrs. Jones is a new teacher in our school she is not a principal. Run-On 2.The student works very hard, however, the tests are difficult. Comma Splice 3.Although his efforts in the class were not rewarded. Frag. 4.John and Marcy like to eat. No error 5.Alex and Joanna went to the concert, it was awesome! Comma Splice 6.Running behind on their way to school. Fragment 7.Scout likes to beat up boys Jem is quiet and courageous. Run-on 8.Because the book is so good, I couldn’t put it down! None


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