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Intro to Social Coaching

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1 Intro to Social Coaching
James Emmett APSE Webinar

2 Theory of Mind What if I don’t know that you have mind separate and different from my own? What if I don’t realize that you are a unique individual in your own right? What if I don’t realize that you have my interests at heart and want to offer me the benefits of your own experiences and thinking and ability? What if I don’t know that you experience things differently from me?

3 Possible Work Problems
Understanding what is expected of them when the job is not specific enough, the tasks are not defined and varied, the employer’s expectations are not clear or there is little routine to the job Recognizing the informal rules of the workplace which others can understand without being told

4 Possible Problems (cont.)
Working as a team..cannot offer recognize humor, hints, ironies seeking help in appropriate ways…having difficulty assessing the best times and methods to use Recognizing that co-workers might find their behavior intrusive or odd coping with unexpected changes at work…their consequent anxiety may make them less competent and more demanding

5 Problems (cont.) Different sensory reactions from the norm…background noises, florescent lighting, open windows, vibrations. Remembering info that has been communicated verbally

6 Ways to Improve the Experience of Work
Gradual intro into the work situation, with support Clear, specific job tasks--made clear to employer Written, diagrammatic or pictorial instructions A structured work pattern which enables the employee to complete one task before beginning another

7 Improving (cont.) Clear line of management and an informed supervisor, or mentor who can be available to give advice Checklists and timetables for work to be done Initial close supervision Explicit rules of behavior and advice about unwritten rules in the workplace Consistency from colleagues

8 Improving (cont.) Immediate, clear and open feedback about the standard of work done Guidelines for colleagues about how they can meet the individual needs in the workplace Contingency plans for dealing with unbearable stress, a place to go for refuge, and contact with someone who will give support

9 Getting a Match and an Action Plan
List the environmental needs of the student List the job requisites of the job List the requisites of the workplace Find the level of the match Create the action plan

10 Social Coaching In the Workplace

11 Social Coaching Values Self-Advocacy Social Skills Communication Skills

12 Minnesota Work Adjustment Theory
Work skills matched with Job Requirements = Satisfactoriness Work Values matched with Job Reinforcers = Satisfaction Satisfaction + Satisfactoriness = Job Tenure

13 Relation to Autism Too often we focus on satisfactoriness
We need to assess what a worker with autism values We cannot assume what an individual values From experience, job retention is significantly increased when a worker with autism’s values are addressed and met on the job

14 How to Assess Work Values
Direct Interview Hobbies & Free Time Ask family Observations of behavior O-Net

15 Self-Advocacy Skills Asking For Help Saying “I don’t Understand”
Requesting a break The second component of “social coaching” is supporting self-advocacy skills. It is important for job coaches to feel comfortable that the worker understands and can demonstrate 5 concepts before the coach begins to completely fade out: Asking for Help: Many employees with social communication disorders struggle to know when & how to ask for help in the workplace. These individuals may have lost the skill of asking for help during middle or high school because they were made fun of or put down for asking for help at the wrong times. So, many of these individuals have stopped asking for help. As we know, if you don’t ask for help in the workplace when you need it, you will lose your job eventually. So, it is critical that a coach support the employee in developing how and when to ask for help. This request for help does not always have to be verbal, it may be through a sign, gesture, picture, or turning on a help light. However help is requested, it is important to job success that the employee can ask for help when needed. 15

16 Social Skills Understanding Job Responsibilities
Understanding Directions Making Introductions Asking Questions Asking Permission Asking for Help Accepting Help Offering Help Requesting Information

17 Social Skills (cont.) 10. Taking Messages 11. Engaging In Conversation
12. Giving Directions 13. Receiving Compliments 14. Giving Compliments 15. Convincing Others 16. Apologizing 17. Accepting Criticism 18. Responding to a Complaint

18 Social Interaction On The Job
Temple Grandin is an individual with autism who has her Ph.D. in Animal Science She defined the following Rule System to guide her social interactions and behaviors, especially on the job

19 Social Interaction (cont.)
This system is helpful to assist other individuals with autism in understanding social rules on the job There are four categories in this system:

20 Really Bad Things Defined as things that are considered extremely bad by a culture and are most time illegal Examples: Stealing someone’s work Hitting a co-worker

21 Courtesy Rules These things are important because they make others around you at work feel comfortable Examples: Cleaning up the lunch area after you finish lunch Letting a co-worker in a rush make copies before you

22 Illegal But Not Bad These things technically violate a law, but are not considered bad by the culture Examples: Speeding when you are late for work “Stealing” a paper clip from a co-worker’s desk

23 Sins of the System These are the unwritten rules of the workplace that will lead to termination. Some of these rules may vary from work place to work place. This is a category that is difficult for workers with autism Examples: Not asking a supervisor 6 times when it will be time to return from break Not discussing sexual issues with a co-worker

24 Being a Competent Communicator?

25 The “Culture” of Autism: Being a Cross-cultural Translator
(adapted from Mesibov) Difficulty in combining ideas Difficulty organizing and sequencing Difficulty generalizing Additional neurological patterns Thinking Concrete Focus on Detail Distractibility

26 How to Aid Understanding
Talk less Give wait time (use silence) Keep it concrete and straightforward Do not use sarcasm or abstract phrases

27 Environmental Supports
Are the materials that assist the individual client taking into account? Their sensory needs Their need to understand the passage of time The ways they learn based on their strengths Their need for accurate consistent information

28 Why Is It Important? So they can make sense of their world
So they can become flexible So they can be independent

29 Time Supports that organize sequences of time and time frames
Schedules Mini schedules Completion guidelines Waiting supports Accepting change

30 Space Supports that provide specific information about the organization of the environment Location Sensory overload supports Personal space Relationship to others

31 Events Supports that connect the steps of an activity to the people/objects Routines Rule cards Task completion Mini schedules Possessions Privacy

32 Expressions Supports that allow the client to initiate interactions and have control Making choices Self-control Improving expressions

33 Considerations for Designing Environment Supports
The client Physical Space Sensory Space User Friendliness

34 Tools to Help Our Clients Improve Social Communication

35 Helping Our Client’s Understanding
1. Visual supports 2. Social stories

36 Social Stories Good social stories use 3 types of sentences:
Descriptive Perspective Directive Use descriptive, perspective, and directive sentences: Descriptive sentences identify the most important factors in a situation or the most important aspects of a topic. They are used to describe a social setting, step-by-step directions for completing an activity, etc. Perspective sentences give information about how others think or feel. This type of sentence presents others people's reactions to a situation so that the individual can learn how others' perceive various events. Directive sentences give appropriate responses and/or direct behavior. They state, in positive terms, what the desired behavior is. Below is a sample social Story: How to Greet Someone at Work There are many ways to greet someone. When I see someone I know, usually I will try to smile and say “hello.” They may say “hello” back. They may stop to talk to me. Sometimes I will try to shake their hand. Sometimes, if I am just passing someone I know, I can smile, wave, or just nod. Most people like it when I smile at them. Smiling can make people feel good. 36

37 Social Story Ratio The basic social story ratio defines the proportion of sentences used in a story. This ratio is maintained no matter what the length or focus of the story. This ratio ensures the DESCRIPTIVE quality of the story. Some social stories do not contain directive sentences but are entirely descriptive. Following this ratio results in a social story that has a patient and reassuring quality and can be referred to time and time again as a source of social information for the student with ASD 0-1 Directive _______________ 2-5 Descriptive, Perspective or Affirmative Sentences From T-TAC Sue Palko, VCU

38 Social Skill Supports Comic Strip Conversation:
A Comic Strip Conversation is a visual conversation between two or more people using simple illustrations in a comic strip format. Comic Strip Conversations are useful for visual learners because they allow the person to “see” a situation. They slow down and visually show what happened in an interaction. Comic strip conversations can help an employee: Understand what was said in a conversation. Follow directions. Work though a problem situation and identify solutions. Learn appropriate behavior. Understand past or present situations as well as to plan for future situations. To give clear and accurate information about an upcoming event, make sure that your employees write, draw, and talk about the answer to the following questions: When will it begin? When will it end? Who will be involved? What will be expected of the employee? 38

39 Social Skill Supports Comic Strip Conversation:
An individual uses simple drawings to communicate what he/she and others say, do, and think. These words and drawings serve as an outline of the conversation Creating Comic Strip Conversations Steps to follow when creating a Comic Strip Conversation: 1) Begin the conversation by drawing small talk. This is important because this is how most conversations begin. 2) Introduce the assigned topic or situation. 3) Place numbers in the boxes to identify the order in which events occurred. Ask the employee to summarize or identify the key points of the conversation. The employee can do this by pointing to the drawings. 5) Have the employee identify a solution to the situation. 6) Have the employee create a plan based on the solutions he/she suggested. This entails talking about the pros and cons of each solution with your employee. Identify which solutions to use first, second, third, and so on. Eliminate the ones that are not practical. 39

40 Other Social Skill Support Strategies (cont.)
4. Mentoring: Mentor Training Incentives & Follow-Up 3) Mentor Training: Training co-workers to be solid mentors is a critical piece to this support strategy. If no formal mentor training is in place in the company, the job coach may want to consider providing the following Training to the potential mentor (given all necessary consent) : Disability Awareness Social Communication Supports Mentoring/Coaching Basics Individual Specific Supports 4) Incentives & Follow-Up: The last part of a solid mentoring program is insuring that incentives are in place for the mentor and mentee such as company recognition, awards, end of the year party, etc. It is also critical to follow-up and measure the mentoring efforts to insure that both mentor and mentee are benefiting from and satisfied with the arrangement. 40

41 Social Support Strategies (cont.)
5. Role Play: Specific text with instructor Specific text with peer Improvise entire interaction Practice in natural environment Role play is a great way to prepare and build social skills for the workplace. For role play to be effective, it must be structured with the goal of the skill being efficiently demonstrated in the natural setting. So, below is a systematic way to set up a role play: Specific text with instructor: go over a written script one on one with instructor playing role of target person (co-worker, supervisor). 2) Specific text with peer: practice script with friend in comfortable place. 3) Improvise entire interaction: take away the script and practice the interaction with instructor and or friend. 4) Practice in natural environment: practice the interaction with instructor, friend, or job coach in the work setting. 5) Demonstrate the skill: complete the interaction with the supervisor or co-worker and assist individual in evaluating how they performed. Lesson 8 will cover workplace communication supports in more detail and will provide some case study examples. 41

42 Social Support Strategies (cont.)
6) Scripting: Write the “play” together 7) Board Games: Concrete practice 8) Direction Instruction: Class style 9) Peer Tutoring: Helping each other 10) Incidental Teaching: Reinforce when it occurs in natural environment

43 Social Support Strategies (cont.)
11) Rehearsal: Acronyms, practice Accepting Help: Greet Express appreciation Tell how to help Thank the person GETT

44 Social Support Strategies (cont.)
12) Modeling 13) Visualization 14) Rule Cards 15) Immediate Feedback 16) Self-Management 17) Organizational Chart 18) Social Communication Groups

45 Contact Me James Emmett Social Coaching Institute
Corporate Disability Consultant

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