Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

General Considerations For The Physically Active Individual: Chapter 7 Presented by: Professor Steven Dion Salem State College Sport, Fitness & Leisure.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "General Considerations For The Physically Active Individual: Chapter 7 Presented by: Professor Steven Dion Salem State College Sport, Fitness & Leisure."— Presentation transcript:

1 General Considerations For The Physically Active Individual: Chapter 7 Presented by: Professor Steven Dion Salem State College Sport, Fitness & Leisure Studies Department

2 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 2 The Food Guide Pyramid: A Model for Good Nutrition Research in nutrition, cancer, and heart disease has shown that the Four Food Group plan developed by the USDA had an overemphasis on meat and poultry. This led to the development of the food guide pyramid. Research in nutrition, cancer, and heart disease has shown that the Four Food Group plan developed by the USDA had an overemphasis on meat and poultry. This led to the development of the food guide pyramid. The food guide pyramid is a guideline for people age two years and older. It categorizes foods according to their nutrient contributions and recommends serving sizes for each category. The food guide pyramid is a guideline for people age two years and older. It categorizes foods according to their nutrient contributions and recommends serving sizes for each category. Diverse grains, vegetables, and fruits should make up a major source of calories in the diet. Diverse grains, vegetables, and fruits should make up a major source of calories in the diet. Animal proteins, lipids, and dairy products should make up the least calories in the diet. Animal proteins, lipids, and dairy products should make up the least calories in the diet.

3 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 3 Personal Assessment Determining energy and nutrient intake by recording daily food intake provides a very close estimate of the adequacy of ones diet related to recommended guidelines for active men and women. Determining energy and nutrient intake by recording daily food intake provides a very close estimate of the adequacy of ones diet related to recommended guidelines for active men and women.

4 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 4 The Quality of the Diet The Diet Quality index shows a person how healthy their diet is. It gives a score based on a composite of the eight food and nutrition based recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences. The Diet Quality index shows a person how healthy their diet is. It gives a score based on a composite of the eight food and nutrition based recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences. People who meet a given dietary goal receive a score of 0; they receive a 1 if their intake falls within 30% of the dietary goal; the score becomes 2 when intake fails to fall within 30% of the goal. People who meet a given dietary goal receive a score of 0; they receive a 1 if their intake falls within 30% of the dietary goal; the score becomes 2 when intake fails to fall within 30% of the goal. The eight categories are totaled with a score ranging from 0-16; a score of 4 or less reflects a healthy diet; 10 or higher reflects a less healthy diet that needs improvement. The eight categories are totaled with a score ranging from 0-16; a score of 4 or less reflects a healthy diet; 10 or higher reflects a less healthy diet that needs improvement.

5 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 5 Macronutrient Needs for the Physically Active Research indicates that physically active men and women do not require additional nutrients beyond those obtained through eating a nutritionally well balanced diet. Research indicates that physically active men and women do not require additional nutrients beyond those obtained through eating a nutritionally well balanced diet.

6 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 6 What the Physically Active Eat They eat the same things as inactive people. Athletes eat more of the same foods consuming a larger total quantity of food to support the extra energy used for training. They eat the same things as inactive people. Athletes eat more of the same foods consuming a larger total quantity of food to support the extra energy used for training. Physically active people must maintain adequate energy and protein intake, and an appropriate level of carbohydrates to match the use for energy during training. Physically active people must maintain adequate energy and protein intake, and an appropriate level of carbohydrates to match the use for energy during training.

7 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 7 Proteins The RDA for protein intake is.8 grams per kilogram of body mass. The RDA for protein intake is.8 grams per kilogram of body mass. The protein intake in the average American diet exceeds the RDA and the competitive athletes diet usually contains 2-4 times more protein than the RDA. The protein intake in the average American diet exceeds the RDA and the competitive athletes diet usually contains 2-4 times more protein than the RDA.

8 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 8 Is the RDA Really Enough? For men and woman who train for long periods of time with resistance equipment dietary protein represents the most important of the macronutrients. For men and woman who train for long periods of time with resistance equipment dietary protein represents the most important of the macronutrients. Resistance training damages a muscle structure; this drain on the body’s protein requires addition dietary protein above the RDA to promote tissue re-synthesis. Resistance training damages a muscle structure; this drain on the body’s protein requires addition dietary protein above the RDA to promote tissue re-synthesis. Athletes also believe that training increases protein catabolism to sustain the energy requirements of exercise and that added protein offsets this energy drain. Athletes also believe that training increases protein catabolism to sustain the energy requirements of exercise and that added protein offsets this energy drain.

9 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 9 Is the RDA Really Enough? Some modification required for recommended protein intake Some modification required for recommended protein intake Eating a high carbohydrate diet with adequate energy intake conserves muscle protein in athletes who engage in hard training. Eating a high carbohydrate diet with adequate energy intake conserves muscle protein in athletes who engage in hard training. Protein breakdown above the resting level does occur to a degree greater than previously thought during endurance and resistance training. It occurs more when exercising with a low carbohydrate intake. Protein breakdown above the resting level does occur to a degree greater than previously thought during endurance and resistance training. It occurs more when exercising with a low carbohydrate intake. Athletes in heavy training especially aerobic training should consume 1.2 and 1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body mass daily. Athletes in heavy training especially aerobic training should consume 1.2 and 1.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body mass daily.

10 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 10 Preparations of Simple Amino Acids Some people believe that the body absorbs simple amino acids more rapidly than protein, but this is not true, it absorbs complex amino acids just as rapidly. Some people believe that the body absorbs simple amino acids more rapidly than protein, but this is not true, it absorbs complex amino acids just as rapidly. Research has not shown that amino acid supplementation above the RDA significantly increases muscle mass or improves strength, power, or endurance. Research has not shown that amino acid supplementation above the RDA significantly increases muscle mass or improves strength, power, or endurance.

11 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 11 Lipids Lipid intake should not exceed 30% of the diets energy intake content, of this 70% should come from unsaturated fatty acids. Lipid intake should not exceed 30% of the diets energy intake content, of this 70% should come from unsaturated fatty acids. Low fat diets make it hard to furnish sufficient energy to maintain body weight and muscle mass and could lead to malnutrition during strenuous exercise. Low fat diets make it hard to furnish sufficient energy to maintain body weight and muscle mass and could lead to malnutrition during strenuous exercise.

12 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 12 Carbohydrates A low carbohydrate diet compromises energy reserves and causes an individual to train in a state of relative glycogen depletion, which may eventually slow down performance. A low carbohydrate diet compromises energy reserves and causes an individual to train in a state of relative glycogen depletion, which may eventually slow down performance. Evidence suggests that eating a variety of fiber rich complex carbohydrates (provided the intake is adequate for the essential amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins) doesn’t negatively affect your health. Evidence suggests that eating a variety of fiber rich complex carbohydrates (provided the intake is adequate for the essential amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins) doesn’t negatively affect your health. Physically active people should consume at least 50-60% of calories as carbohydrates. Physically active people should consume at least 50-60% of calories as carbohydrates.

13 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 13 A More Specific Recommendation A diet low in total fat may not allow an athlete in heavy training to match energy output with energy intake. A diet with 20% total fat resulted in poorer performance than a diet containing 42% total fat. A diet low in total fat may not allow an athlete in heavy training to match energy output with energy intake. A diet with 20% total fat resulted in poorer performance than a diet containing 42% total fat. Athletes undergoing heavy endurance training should consume on a daily basis 10 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body mass. Athletes undergoing heavy endurance training should consume on a daily basis 10 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body mass.

14 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 14 Carbohydrate’s Possible Role in the “Overtraining” Syndrome A gradual depletion of the body’s carbohydrate reserves with repeated strenuous training can contribute to the overtraining syndrome. A gradual depletion of the body’s carbohydrate reserves with repeated strenuous training can contribute to the overtraining syndrome. When the body runs out of carbohydrates for energy it converts fat to energy When the body runs out of carbohydrates for energy it converts fat to energy

15 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 15 Glycogen Takes Time to Replenish It takes at least 24 hours to replenish muscle glycogen levels after exhaustive exercise. It takes at least 24 hours to replenish muscle glycogen levels after exhaustive exercise. At least 1-2 days of rest or lighter exercise combined with a high carbohydrate intake must be provided to reestablish the pre- exercise glycogen levels after exhaustive training. At least 1-2 days of rest or lighter exercise combined with a high carbohydrate intake must be provided to reestablish the pre- exercise glycogen levels after exhaustive training.

16 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 16 The Coach’s And Athlete’s Dilemma about Vitamin Supplementation Vitamin-mineral pills are the most commonly marketed and used nutritional supplement by the public (accounting for 70-90%) Vitamin-mineral pills are the most commonly marketed and used nutritional supplement by the public (accounting for 70-90%) Marketing targets are exercise fanatics, the athlete, and those who coach the athlete Marketing targets are exercise fanatics, the athlete, and those who coach the athlete More than 50% of athletes consume supplements regularly to enhance performance More than 50% of athletes consume supplements regularly to enhance performance Vitamin deficiencies tend to occur among vegetarian athletes and athletes with low energy intake Vitamin deficiencies tend to occur among vegetarian athletes and athletes with low energy intake Vitamin supplements can reverse symptoms of vitamin deficiency and improve performance Vitamin supplements can reverse symptoms of vitamin deficiency and improve performance

17 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 17 Vitamin Supplements: The Competitive Edge? 40 plus years of research does not confirm that using vitamin supplements will enhance exercise performance 40 plus years of research does not confirm that using vitamin supplements will enhance exercise performance Coaches, athletes, and fitness enthusiasts feel “more is better” and believe in using vitamin supplements above recommended levels Coaches, athletes, and fitness enthusiasts feel “more is better” and believe in using vitamin supplements above recommended levels Supplementing with vitamin C had negligible effects on endurance performance and did not alter the rate, severity, or duration of injuries Supplementing with vitamin C had negligible effects on endurance performance and did not alter the rate, severity, or duration of injuries

18 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 18 Vitamin Supplements: The Competitive Edge? No scientific data proves that vitamin E benefits circulatory functions, stamina, or energy metabolism No scientific data proves that vitamin E benefits circulatory functions, stamina, or energy metabolism Vitamin mineral supplementation for healthy individuals does not benefit fitness, athletic performance, or muscular strength Vitamin mineral supplementation for healthy individuals does not benefit fitness, athletic performance, or muscular strength

19 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 19 Perhaps a Benefit from Vitamin C C intake above recommended levels doesn’t protect the general population against upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) C intake above recommended levels doesn’t protect the general population against upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) Supplementing with C may benefit those who engage in heavy exercise and have problems with URTI Supplementing with C may benefit those who engage in heavy exercise and have problems with URTI Carbohydrate ingestion and additional vitamin C and E before and after strenuous exercise will boost immune mechanisms and fight infection Carbohydrate ingestion and additional vitamin C and E before and after strenuous exercise will boost immune mechanisms and fight infection

20 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 20 Megavitamins Active individuals eating well-balanced meals do not need to take additional vitamins Active individuals eating well-balanced meals do not need to take additional vitamins Nutritionists feel that harm occurs in taking multivitamin capsules. Nutritionists feel that harm occurs in taking multivitamin capsules. Those who try to “supercharge” by taking vitamins for performance are potentially causing harm to the body Those who try to “supercharge” by taking vitamins for performance are potentially causing harm to the body

21 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 21 Vitamins Behave as Chemicals Excess vitamins taken in megadose function as chemicals (drugs) in the body Excess vitamins taken in megadose function as chemicals (drugs) in the body Megadose of vitamin C can cause kidney stone formation Megadose of vitamin C can cause kidney stone formation Some blacks, Asians, Sephardic Jews have a genetic deficiency that becomes activated to anemia with an excessive amount of C intake Some blacks, Asians, Sephardic Jews have a genetic deficiency that becomes activated to anemia with an excessive amount of C intake In healthy people Vitamin C may irritate bowels and cause diarrhea In healthy people Vitamin C may irritate bowels and cause diarrhea

22 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 22 Vitamins Behave as Chemicals Excessive B6 may induce nerve damage and liver disease Excessive B6 may induce nerve damage and liver disease Excessive B2 can impair vision Excessive B2 can impair vision Excessive amounts of Vitamin A are toxic to the nervous system Excessive amounts of Vitamin A are toxic to the nervous system Taking vitamin D in excess may damage the kidneys Taking vitamin D in excess may damage the kidneys 30% of Americans use vitamin supplements in toxic dosages 30% of Americans use vitamin supplements in toxic dosages “Sale of vitamins is probably the biggest rip-off in our society” “Sale of vitamins is probably the biggest rip-off in our society”

23 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 23 Exercise, Free Radicals, and Antioxidants: The Potentially Protective Micronutrients For Physically Active People Micronutrients For Physically Active People The possibility for negative effects from physical activity has recently been addressed The possibility for negative effects from physical activity has recently been addressed Negative effects may occur because in exercise when aerobic metabolism is elevated the production of free radicals increases Negative effects may occur because in exercise when aerobic metabolism is elevated the production of free radicals increases Increased free radicals will overwhelm the body’s natural defenses and potentially pose a health risk for increased levels of oxidative stress Increased free radicals will overwhelm the body’s natural defenses and potentially pose a health risk for increased levels of oxidative stress Free radicals have also been found to cause injury from exercise Free radicals have also been found to cause injury from exercise

24 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 24 Increased Metabolism and Free Radical Production Exercise produces free radicals in two ways: through an electron leak in the mitochondria and during alterations in blood flow and oxygen supply· Exercise produces free radicals in two ways: through an electron leak in the mitochondria and during alterations in blood flow and oxygen supply· Intense exercise followed by recovery can trigger free radical generation Intense exercise followed by recovery can trigger free radical generation Free radical damage can also increase during trauma, muscle damage, stress, and by environmental pollution Free radical damage can also increase during trauma, muscle damage, stress, and by environmental pollution During exercise the risk of free radicals depends on the intensity of the exercise and the state of training During exercise the risk of free radicals depends on the intensity of the exercise and the state of training Research says that for well nourished people the body’s naturals defenses respond to increased physical activity Research says that for well nourished people the body’s naturals defenses respond to increased physical activity

25 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 25 A Prudent Recommendation Consume a well-balanced diet containing fruits, vegetables, and grains Consume a well-balanced diet containing fruits, vegetables, and grains Nutrient antioxidants should be obtained from different foods not from supplements Nutrient antioxidants should be obtained from different foods not from supplements Studies show that people who consume more fruits and vegetables are less likely to contact cancer Studies show that people who consume more fruits and vegetables are less likely to contact cancer Dietary Guidelines recommend 3-5 servings of vegetables and 2-4 servings of fruits daily Dietary Guidelines recommend 3-5 servings of vegetables and 2-4 servings of fruits daily

26 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 26 A Prudent Recommendation Three potential mechanisms for antioxidant health benefits include: Three potential mechanisms for antioxidant health benefits include: (1) influence on molecular mechanisms and gene expression (1) influence on molecular mechanisms and gene expression (2) block uncontrolled growth cells, or (2) block uncontrolled growth cells, or (3) provide enzyme-inducing substances that detoxify carcinogens (3) provide enzyme-inducing substances that detoxify carcinogens

27 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 27 MINERALS AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE Mineral Loss in Sweat Mineral Loss in Sweat Mineral loss of mineral salt and water poses a challenge in long exercise sessions in hot weather Mineral loss of mineral salt and water poses a challenge in long exercise sessions in hot weather Loss of water and electrolytes can lead to cramps, heat exhaustion, and even stroke Loss of water and electrolytes can lead to cramps, heat exhaustion, and even stroke It is crucial to replace water lost through sweating It is crucial to replace water lost through sweating

28 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 28 Defense Against Mineral Loss Vigorous exercise triggers a rapid release of the hormones renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone to minimize the loss of sodium and water through the kidneys Vigorous exercise triggers a rapid release of the hormones renin, vasopressin, and aldosterone to minimize the loss of sodium and water through the kidneys Drinking an 8 oz glass of tomato or orange juice replaces the potassium, calcium, and magnesium lost through sweat Drinking an 8 oz glass of tomato or orange juice replaces the potassium, calcium, and magnesium lost through sweat

29 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 29 Trace Minerals and Exercise Strenuous exercise can increase excretion of trace elements chromium which is necessary for fat Strenuous exercise can increase excretion of trace elements chromium which is necessary for fat Women and men who engage in heavy training should monitor mineral intake to prevent deficiency Women and men who engage in heavy training should monitor mineral intake to prevent deficiency For the most part trace mineral deficiency doesn’t pose a problem For the most part trace mineral deficiency doesn’t pose a problem

30 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 30 Extremes of Physical Inactivity Present a Different Picture Bed rest depletes trace minerals such as copper and zinc Bed rest depletes trace minerals such as copper and zinc One half of the body’s zinc and copper are constituents of the muscle and bone mass; bed rest could drain these minerals from the body One half of the body’s zinc and copper are constituents of the muscle and bone mass; bed rest could drain these minerals from the body

31 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 31 Exercise Activity Makes a Difference Physical Activity Makes a Difference Physical Activity Makes a Difference Individuals who regularly engage in moderate to intense physical activity eventually increase daily energy intake to match the higher level of daily energy expenditure. Individuals who regularly engage in moderate to intense physical activity eventually increase daily energy intake to match the higher level of daily energy expenditure. The body requires several days to attain new energy equilibrium when balancing food intake to meet a new level of energy output. The body requires several days to attain new energy equilibrium when balancing food intake to meet a new level of energy output. The lack of precision in regulating food intake at low end of the physical activity spectrum probably accounts for the “creeping obesity”. The lack of precision in regulating food intake at low end of the physical activity spectrum probably accounts for the “creeping obesity”.

32 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 32 High – Risk Sports for Marginal Nutrition Gymnasts, dancers, ice dancers and weight-class athletes engage in arduous training. Gymnasts, dancers, ice dancers and weight-class athletes engage in arduous training. Due to the nature of their sport, these men and women strive to maintain a lean, light body mass. Due to the nature of their sport, these men and women strive to maintain a lean, light body mass. Energy intake often intentionally falls short of energy expenditure and a relative state of malnutrition develops. Energy intake often intentionally falls short of energy expenditure and a relative state of malnutrition develops. Nutritional supplementation could be beneficial. Nutritional supplementation could be beneficial. Training and competition often take place in the carbohydrates-depleted state Training and competition often take place in the carbohydrates-depleted state

33 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 33 Eat More, Weigh Less Men and women who ate considerably more on a daily basis weighed less than those who exercised at a lower total caloric expenditure. Men and women who ate considerably more on a daily basis weighed less than those who exercised at a lower total caloric expenditure. There is a strong argument that regular exercise provides an effective means for a person to eat more and weigh less, maintaining a lower percentage of body fat. There is a strong argument that regular exercise provides an effective means for a person to eat more and weigh less, maintaining a lower percentage of body fat. Active people maintain a lighter and leaner body and a healthier heart disease risk profile. Active people maintain a lighter and leaner body and a healthier heart disease risk profile.

34 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 34 The Pre-competition Meal Athletes often compete in the morning following an overnight fast. Athletes often compete in the morning following an overnight fast. Depletion occurs in the body’s carbohydrate reserves over an 8 to 12 hour period without eating. Depletion occurs in the body’s carbohydrate reserves over an 8 to 12 hour period without eating. Pre-competition meal provides the athlete with adequate carbohydrate energy and ensures optimal hydration. Pre-competition meal provides the athlete with adequate carbohydrate energy and ensures optimal hydration.

35 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 35 The Pre-competition Meal Fasting before competition or training rapidly depletes liver and muscle glycogen, and impairs exercise performance. Fasting before competition or training rapidly depletes liver and muscle glycogen, and impairs exercise performance. Food high in lipid and protein content should be eliminated from diet on the day of competition. Food high in lipid and protein content should be eliminated from diet on the day of competition. Three hours is sufficient time to digest and absorb a Carbohydrate-rich pre-competition meal. Three hours is sufficient time to digest and absorb a Carbohydrate-rich pre-competition meal.

36 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 36 Protein or Carbohydrate? Dietary carbohydrates replenish the significant depletion of liver and muscle glycogen from overnight fasting. Dietary carbohydrates replenish the significant depletion of liver and muscle glycogen from overnight fasting. Carbohydrates become digested and absorbed more rapidly than either proteins or lipids. Carbohydrates provide energy faster and reduce the feeling of fullness. Carbohydrates become digested and absorbed more rapidly than either proteins or lipids. Carbohydrates provide energy faster and reduce the feeling of fullness. A high protein meal elevates resting metabolism more than a high carbohydrate meal due to greater energy requirements for digestion, absorption, and assimilation. A high protein meal elevates resting metabolism more than a high carbohydrate meal due to greater energy requirements for digestion, absorption, and assimilation.

37 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 37 Protein or Carbohydrate? Protein breakdown for energy facilitates dehydration during exercise because the products of amino acids breakdown require water for urinary excretion. Protein breakdown for energy facilitates dehydration during exercise because the products of amino acids breakdown require water for urinary excretion. Carbohydrates serves as the main energy nutrient for short-term anaerobic activity as well as prolonged high-intensity endurance exercise. Carbohydrates serves as the main energy nutrient for short-term anaerobic activity as well as prolonged high-intensity endurance exercise.

38 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 38 Make It Carbohydrate Rich The ideal pre-competition meal maximizes muscle and liver glycogen storage and provides glucose for intestinal absorption during exercise. The ideal pre-competition meal maximizes muscle and liver glycogen storage and provides glucose for intestinal absorption during exercise. The meal should contain 150 to 300g of carbohydrate (3 to 5g per kg of the body mass in either solid or liquid). The meal should contain 150 to 300g of carbohydrate (3 to 5g per kg of the body mass in either solid or liquid). Meals should be consumed within 3 to 4 hours before exercising. Meals should be consumed within 3 to 4 hours before exercising.

39 Dion - Nutritional Considerations For The Physically Active 39 Liquid and Prepackaged Meals Liquid meals provide high carbohydrate content but contain enough lipid and protein to contribute to satiety. Liquid meals provide high carbohydrate content but contain enough lipid and protein to contribute to satiety. Liquid meal digests rapidly, leaving essentially no residue in the intestinal tract. Liquid meal digests rapidly, leaving essentially no residue in the intestinal tract. Liquid meals digest rapidly leaving essentially no residue in the intestinal tract. Liquid meals digest rapidly leaving essentially no residue in the intestinal tract. Liquid meals provide an approach to supplement caloric intake during high-energy output phase of training. Liquid meals provide an approach to supplement caloric intake during high-energy output phase of training. Athletes can use liquid nutrition if they have a difficult time maintaining a relatively large body mass, and as a ready source of calories to gain weight. Athletes can use liquid nutrition if they have a difficult time maintaining a relatively large body mass, and as a ready source of calories to gain weight.


Download ppt "General Considerations For The Physically Active Individual: Chapter 7 Presented by: Professor Steven Dion Salem State College Sport, Fitness & Leisure."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google