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Why You Are a Reading Teacher And what to do about it UMUC 1 st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Why You Are a Reading Teacher And what to do about it UMUC 1 st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why You Are a Reading Teacher And what to do about it UMUC 1 st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004

2 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Why is a Writing Teacher Talking about Reading? The equivalent relationship between writing grade levels & reading grade levelsThe equivalent relationship between writing grade levels & reading grade levels ► Kellogg Hunt’s T-Unit and Syntactic Maturity Scale (1964) ► Iowa Writing Assessment ► Iowa Writing Assessment ► National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000) ► National Assessment of Educational Progress (2000)

3 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Why is a Writing Teacher Talking about Reading? Chomsky—reading and writing are two uses (receptive and expressive) of the same ability, governed by same deep-structure rulesChomsky—reading and writing are two uses (receptive and expressive) of the same ability, governed by same deep-structure rules Some “writing” deficiencies are actually “reading” deficiencies and may express underlying “language” deficienciesSome “writing” deficiencies are actually “reading” deficiencies and may express underlying “language” deficiencies

4 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Why is a Writing Teacher Talking about Reading? Different name, same language skill Different name, same language skill Writing / Reading Writing / Reading ► word choice / vocabulary ► sentence style / decoding syntax ► awareness of expository text patterns ► critical thinking ► the research paper—where the dividing line between reading/writing skills is nearly erased

5 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Why is a Writing Teacher Talking about Reading? Which leads to the question: Is it possible to improve writing skills by improving reading skills?

6 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Top 5 Reasons You’re a Reading Teacher Reason #1: Ex officio ► The “writing teacher” label ► The “writing teacher” label ► The global view: “language arts teacher” ► The global view: “language arts teacher” ► Benefits and limitations of segregation ► Benefits and limitations of segregation

7 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Top 5 Reasons You’re a Reading Teacher Reason #2: To avoid assumptive teaching ► Reading skills (vocabulary, comprehension, ► Reading skills (vocabulary, comprehension, fluency/decoding) fluency/decoding) ► Motivation ► Motivation ► Interest ► Interest When is student failure a result of my unwarranted assumptions?

8 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Top 5 Reasons You’re a Reading Teacher Reason #3: Promote optimal learning ► Best learning occurs when a student has ► Best learning occurs when a student has necessary tools necessary tools ► To fill the “reading gap” ► To fill the “reading gap”

9 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Top 5 Reasons You’re a Reading Teacher Reason #4: Fill the gap ► A tragic flaw: the 4 th grade shift ► A tragic flaw: the 4 th grade shift ► Middle school: the gap becomes a chasm ► Middle school: the gap becomes a chasm ► The limits of informal learning ► The limits of informal learning

10 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 Top 5 Reasons You’re a Reading Teacher Reason #5: Create the autonomous learner ► Critical writing ► Critical writing ► Critical reading ► Critical reading ► Critical thinking ► Critical thinking

11 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher Practice PAR Richardson & Morgan, Reading to Learn in the Content Areas (2003) ► Preparation (before reading) ► Preparation (before reading) ► Assistance (during reading) ► Assistance (during reading) ► Reflection (after reading) ► Reflection (after reading)

12 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher Preparation ► Activate prior knowledge (schema) ► Activate prior knowledge (schema) ▫ Describe an ethical conflict you’re experienced in the workplace ▫ Prediction: What would you do if... ? ▫ The apocryphal tale of Martin Luther

13 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher Preparation ► Pre-reading activities ► Pre-reading activities ▫ Preview textual (rhetorical) patterns ▫ Introduce vocabulary: “Vocabulary is the single most important factor contributing to reading comprehension.” (Laflamme, 1997; Billmeyer & Batch, 1998) ▫ Preview the text’s organizational features: chapter and section summaries, TOC, index, glossary, graphics, captions ▫ Predict: conclusions, author attitude, key concepts, personal challenges

14 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher During Reading ► Metacognitive strategies: self questioning ► Metacognitive strategies: self questioning ▫ Two-column journal ▫ Freewriting breaks ▫ Post- It ® notes ▫ Summary/précis

15 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher After Reading ► Reflection & application ► Reflection & application ▫ Low-stress writing activities ▫ Rereading ▫ Scaffolded questions

16 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher Bloom’s Taxonomy Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Evaluation

17 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher ► ► Level One: Knowledge Questions that draw out factual answers, test recall and recognition of critical info ▫ Who, what, why, when, where, how ▫ Select, describe, define, choose, which one ▫ State, recall, list, label Where and how: Chat room, classroom discussion, online quiz

18 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher ► ► Level Two: Comprehension Questions that test for understanding by requiring information be translated into a new form ▫ State in your own words, what does this mean, give an example ▫ Condense this paragraph, say it in one word, what is the author saying ▫ Which statements support, is this the same as, is it valid that ▫ Classify, select, match, explain, demonstrate, explain Where and how: prior to a chat asking students to paraphrase important concepts; précis and summary writing. In-class discussion, small group work, team writing

19 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher ► ► Level Three: Application Questions that ask the student to apply knowledge and understanding in a new and practical way ▫ What would happen if, identify the results of, tell how much change there would be if ▫ Choose the best statements that apply, select which statements ▫ Tell when, where or why; judge the effects of Where and how: Asynchronous—threaded discussion in response to application questions; web gaming/case study (solving a hypothetical problem) individual or group. Classroom—discussion, case study teams

20 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher ► ► Level Four: Analysis Questions that ask the student to find relationships among ideas and information; and become aware of their reasoning process ▫ Which ideas apply, make a distinction, what’s the relationship between, what conclusions ▫ What does the author believe or assume, what inconsistencies or fallacies, what motive is there, what is the premise, ▫ What does the author believe or assume, what inconsistencies or fallacies, what motive is there, what is the premise, implicit in this statement is ▫ What persuasive technique, what logical or emotional appeals are made

21 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher ► ► Level Five: Synthesis Questions that encourage the student to engage in original thinking, to integrate knowledge, and to craft patterns not visible before ▫ Create, tell, make, do, choose, develop, design, make up, plan ▫ How would you test, propose an alternative, solve the following ▫ How else would you, state a new rule, if you had your way

22 UMUC 1st Annual Writing Conference July 30-31, 2004 How to Be a Better Reading Teacher ► ► Level Six: Evaluation Questions that ask the student to assess, criticize or defend information, and justify beliefs ▫ Appraise, judge, criticize, defend, evaluate, critique, compare ▫ What fallacies, consistencies or inconsistencies appear, find the errors, what is the weakness ▫ Which is more important, moral, better, valid or appropriate


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