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The Human Teaching Disposition Sidney Strauss Tel Aviv University James S. McDonnell Foundation Workshop on TEACHING December 3-5, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "The Human Teaching Disposition Sidney Strauss Tel Aviv University James S. McDonnell Foundation Workshop on TEACHING December 3-5, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Human Teaching Disposition Sidney Strauss Tel Aviv University James S. McDonnell Foundation Workshop on TEACHING December 3-5, 2004

2 General Overview Philosophers and educators ask –what is good teaching? –how can we foster it in others? I ask: Why do we teach in the first place? I ask: Why do we teach in the first place? The search for answers transports us to the borders of our cognitive, cultural and biological endowments The search for answers transports us to the borders of our cognitive, cultural and biological endowments Broad canvas, general lay of the research and theoretical landscape Broad canvas, general lay of the research and theoretical landscape

3 General Overview Innovation Innovation –Applying some ideas from cognitive sciences and cognitive development to teaching Possible results Possible results –Some conceptual headway –Perhaps different view of teaching –Opening up new theory and research areas in teaching

4 Seven Points 1. teaching and the cognitive sciences, writ large, haven’t yet met 2. teaching may be a natural cognitive predisposition 3. cognitive prerequisites of teaching *declarative and procedural knowledge 4. my claims about ontogenesis *cognitive prerequisites develop, leading to emergence of teaching to emergence of teaching *after its emergence, teaching develops 5. new places to go empirically 6. teacher education 7. weaknesses of the approach

5 1. Teaching and the Cognitive Sciences Haven’t Yet Met Considerable theory-building and research in the cognitive sciences and cognitive development on learning Considerable theory-building and research in the cognitive sciences and cognitive development on learning Little theory-building and research on what sometimes causes learning: teaching Little theory-building and research on what sometimes causes learning: teaching But first: What is a natural cognitive predisposition? But first: What is a natural cognitive predisposition?

6 What is a Natural Cognitive Predisposition? Cognition that is: Cognition that is: –Universal –Very complex –Learned without instruction –Young children master it effortlessly Sometimes so easy and natural that we don’t even think about it Language is a classic example Teaching might be, too.

7 What is a Natural Cognitive Predisposition? Is teaching a uniquely natural cognitive predisposition for humans (species unique)? Is teaching a uniquely natural cognitive predisposition for humans (species unique)? Video of an adult chimp fishing for termites in the presence of a 3-year- old juvenile. Video of an adult chimp fishing for termites in the presence of a 3-year- old juvenile. See if there is teaching here. See if there is teaching here.

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9 What is a Natural Cognitive Predisposition? Was there teaching here? Was there teaching here? Did the adult chimpanzee intend to teach? Did the adult chimpanzee intend to teach? Did the chimpanzee have an understanding of the juvenile’s mind and learning? Did the chimpanzee have an understanding of the juvenile’s mind and learning? Difficult to say Difficult to say Motivation to define teaching without either Motivation to define teaching without either

10 What Is Teaching, Anyway? Biological definition “An individual actor A can be said to teach if it modifies its behaviors only in the presence of a naïve observer, B, at some cost or at least without obtaining an immediate benefit for itself. A’s behavior thereby encourages or punishes B’s behavior, or provides B with experience or sets an example for B. As a result, B acquires knowledge or learns a skill earlier in life or more rapidly or efficiently than it might otherwise do, or that it would not learn at all.” “An individual actor A can be said to teach if it modifies its behaviors only in the presence of a naïve observer, B, at some cost or at least without obtaining an immediate benefit for itself. A’s behavior thereby encourages or punishes B’s behavior, or provides B with experience or sets an example for B. As a result, B acquires knowledge or learns a skill earlier in life or more rapidly or efficiently than it might otherwise do, or that it would not learn at all.” Caro, T. M. & Hauser, M. D. (1992) Is there teaching in nonhuman animals? The Quarterly Review of Biology, 67,

11 Is Teaching Unique to Humans? We saw that chimpanzees learn to fashion tools for termite fishing We saw that chimpanzees learn to fashion tools for termite fishing –Whiten, A. et al. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, The question before us is: Do chimpanzees, cats, birds teach?

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13 Is Teaching Unique to Humans? BOTTOM LINE BOTTOM LINE –Little or no primate teaching in the wild –Little teaching in captivity (3 reported cases) if they teach in captivity, this means they if they teach in captivity, this means they have the capacity for teaching have the capacity for teaching - Teaching may be unique to humans (with ToM)

14 What is Teaching, Anyway? Psychological definition “When faced with the question of determining whether an action is a teaching action, as opposed to some other action such as reciting, talking or acting in a play, it is the intention of bringing about learning that is the basis for distinguishing teaching from other activities. The intention the activity serves, then, is a part of the meaning of the concept...” (italics added) Pearson, A. T. (1989). The teacher: Theory and practice in teacher education. New York: Routledge

15 What is Teaching, Anyway? The psychological view involves : Intentionality Intentionality –Intention to cause learning in other’s mind Knowledge (gap) Knowledge (gap) –Close the gap in knowledge, understanding, etc. Ziv, M., & Frye, D. (in press) Cognitive Development Mind The Gap!

16 Teaching and the Big Divide Do very young children teach? Do very young children teach?

17 Teaching Develops In Early Childhood Strauss, S., Ziv, M., & Stein, A. (2002). Teaching as a natural cognition and its relations to preschoolers’ developing theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 17, Maynard, A. E. (2002). Cultural teaching: The development of teaching skills in Maya sibling interactions. Child Development, 73, Ashley, J., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Cooperative problem-solving and teaching in preschoolers. Social Development, 7, Wood, D., Wood, H., Ainsworth, S., & O'Malley, C. (1995). On becoming a tutor: Toward an ontogenetic model. Cognition and Instruction, 13, Ellis, S., & Rogoff, B. (1982). The strategies and efficacy of child versus adult teachers. Child Development, 53, ½-year-old children show initial indications that they can teach 5½-year-olds can be excellent teachers

18 Teaching Develops In Early Childhood Strauss, S., Ziv, M., & Stein, A. (2002). Teaching as a natural cognition and its relations to preschoolers’ developing theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 17, Strauss, S., Ziv, M., & Stein, A. (2002). Teaching as a natural cognition and its relations to preschoolers’ developing theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 17, Study to determine cognitive prerequisites of teaching Study to determine cognitive prerequisites of teaching 50 pairs of children: 25 age 3½ 25 age 5½ 50 pairs of children: 25 age 3½ 25 age 5½

19 Teaching Develops In Early Childhood Children given 3 kinds of tasks Children given 3 kinds of tasks –who do you teach task All solved it correctly All solved it correctly –classic false belief tasks 3 ½ & 5 ½ -year-olds solve incorrectly and correctly 3 ½ & 5 ½ -year-olds solve incorrectly and correctly –teaching false belief tasks Same results as classic false belief tasks Same results as classic false belief tasks Taught to play a competitive game (one winner) Taught to play a competitive game (one winner) Call a friend over to play the game Call a friend over to play the game

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21 Teaching Emerges and Develops In Early Childhood Findings for 3½ -year-olds Teach (play?) game without verbally stating rules Teach (play?) game without verbally stating rules –Perhaps demonstrate the rules by playing Intervene when learner errs Intervene when learner errs –Teacher compares her representation of the game with the learner’s behaviors –Mismatch leads to actions (teaching) Do not intervene when learner is correct Do not intervene when learner is correct

22 Teaching Emerges and Develops In Early Childhood Findings for 3½ -year-olds Are they teaching? “Demonstrate” “Demonstrate” Maybe they are playing the game and not teaching Maybe they are playing the game and not teaching Maybe their “corrections” are merely making the right move for the other Maybe their “corrections” are merely making the right move for the other Intervene to change behaviors and resulting moves, not changing mental states Intervene to change behaviors and resulting moves, not changing mental states –so that it will conform to the rules –no intention to correct Do not solve classic and teaching FB tasks Do not solve classic and teaching FB tasks

23 Teaching Emerges and Develops In Early Childhood 2 reasons why 3½-year-olds may be teaching 2 reasons why 3½-year-olds may be teaching –Teachers always make the first move –Cheat when playing but not when teaching Recognize different goals Recognize different goals –Teaching: pass on knowledge –Playing competitive game: win

24 Teaching Emerges and Develops In Early Childhood Findings for 5½ -year-olds Explain and demonstrate the rules Explain and demonstrate the rules Interventions seem to be aimed at mental states Interventions seem to be aimed at mental states Sometimes ask questions using mental state terms Sometimes ask questions using mental state terms –Do you understand? What do you think you should do now?

25 Teaching Emerges and Develops In Early Childhood BOTTOM LINE : Children in early childhood can teach

26 Development of Teaching Once It Emerges Ashley & Tomasello; Astington & Pelletier; Maynard; Strauss, Ziv, & Stein; Wood et al. Sequence Sequence –2-year-olds: probably don’t teach (but Strauss & Ornan) –3½-year-olds: teaching emerges - demonstrations –5½-year-olds: explanations, references to mental states –7½-year-olds: more contingent and responsive (related to learner’s knowledge state) –Adolescents? Perhaps Socratic teaching, metacognitive –Adults? There may be levels There may be levels These levels may be developmental These levels may be developmental –Needs elaboration: age difference not necessarily developmental differences

27 The Great Divide Chimpanzees do not teach (Elisabetta will help us with this) and 3½-year-olds probably do and 5 ½ year-olds definitely do Teaching may be a place where the great divide exists between humans and other primates Species-typical and probably species unique

28 2. Teaching May Be A Natural Cognitive Predisposition Includes domains such as: anthropology- cultural evolution biological evolution (phylogeny) primatology child development (ontogeny): infancy - adulthood non-normative cognitive development and functioning

29 Teaching as a Natural Cognitive Predisposition Combined claims about teaching: species typical: universal may be species unique with ToM remarkably complex cognitively poverty of the stimulus: invisibility and sampling teaching appears among toddlers does not require instruction to be learned maybe learned effortlessly

30 Species Typical: Universality of Teaching Among Humans Species typical or universal? Species typical or universal? –Do all societies have teaching? David Lancy David Lancy Alan Fiske Alan Fiske If not, why do some societies not have teaching? If not, why do some societies not have teaching? Could teaching be a cultural adaptation? Could teaching be a cultural adaptation? Does this ruin the cognitive predisposition claim? Does this ruin the cognitive predisposition claim?

31 Universality of Teaching Among Humans Reasons why universality is important Reasons why universality is important –Species typical. No exceptions Part of every culture Part of every culture –Everyone is exposed to teaching

32 Universality of Teaching Among Humans Vast cultural differences Vast cultural differences However, teaching may be quite uniform across cultures However, teaching may be quite uniform across cultures Teaching differs in Teaching differs in –Amount (Tuareg in North Africa; St. Louis) –Content (poisoning spear tip among San !Kung in South Africa; feeding pigs in Sichuan district South Africa; feeding pigs in Sichuan district in China; feeding pigeons in Trafalgar Square) in China; feeding pigeons in Trafalgar Square)

33 Universality of Teaching Among Humans: Mother Teaching Daughter to Sew, Chongzhou China 2004

34 Sometimes through explanation as in university teaching in Czechoslovakia (photo by Alfred Eisenstaedt, Life)

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36 and in Bechuanaland (photo by Nat Farbman, Life)

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38 Universality of Teaching in Human Cultures Sometimes through demonstration as seen among hunter-gatherers in Bechuanaland Sometimes through demonstration as seen among hunter-gatherers in Bechuanaland (photo by Nat Farbman, Life) (photo by Nat Farbman, Life)

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40 Universality of Teaching in Human Cultures And sometimes we teach by correcting towards an ideal And sometimes we teach by correcting towards an ideal ( photo by Alfred Eisenstaedt, Truempy Ballet School, Berlin, 1930) ( photo by Alfred Eisenstaedt, Truempy Ballet School, Berlin, 1930)

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42 Cultural Diversity and Universality Bottom lines Enormous cultural variation Enormous cultural variation Teaching and the cognitive abilities necessary for teaching may be universal Teaching and the cognitive abilities necessary for teaching may be universal The content and amount of teaching is different between cultures The content and amount of teaching is different between cultures The cognitive abilities that allow teaching are identical The cognitive abilities that allow teaching are identical The ways of teaching are very similar The ways of teaching are very similar –Explanation, demonstration, correcting, etc.

43 Teaching’s Remarkable Cognitive Complexity Teaching is extremely complex Teachers make inferences and attributions about others’: minds (beliefs, partial knowledge, etc.) emotions (anxious, comfortable) motivation (high, low)

44 Teaching’s Remarkable Cognitive Complexity Based on these attributions and inferences, teachers teach Purpose of teaching to cause learning in others psychological causality Teaching involves inferences about others’ minds (knowledge gaps, emotional state, motivational state) how learning occurs in others’ minds

45 Teaching’s Remarkable Cognitive Complexity How we teach indicates what our understandings of the mind are and how learning occurs How we teach indicates what our understandings of the mind are and how learning occurs Unreflective Unreflective –Donor for a Center for Research on Learning at Tel Aviv University BOTTOM LINE: Teaching is remarkably complex! (More about this later) BOTTOM LINE: Teaching is remarkably complex! (More about this later)

46 Teaching not Taught Very young children are exposed to teaching BUT Probably not taught how to teach Learning how to teach seems to be effortless

47 3. Cognitive Prerequisites of Teaching Unlike language, we are at the beginning of understanding Unlike language, we are at the beginning of understanding Declarative Knowledge Declarative Knowledge –Epistemological assumptions Procedural Knowledge Procedural Knowledge –Processes –Discourse model

48 4. My Developmental Claims Declarative and procedural cognitive prerequisites for teaching develop during infancy Declarative and procedural cognitive prerequisites for teaching develop during infancy Teaching emerges when prerequisites reach a certain (undetermined) level at around age 3 ½ Teaching emerges when prerequisites reach a certain (undetermined) level at around age 3 ½ Teaching from that age develops until Teaching from that age develops until adolescence (? … and beyond?)

49 The Emergence of Teaching Teaching emerges when cognitive prerequisites of teaching (declarative and procedural knowledge) reach certain (not yet determined) developmental levels Teaching emerges when cognitive prerequisites of teaching (declarative and procedural knowledge) reach certain (not yet determined) developmental levels Around age 3 ½ Around age 3 ½

50 Tentative Conclusions If teaching is If teaching is –Universal (species typical with ToM) –Remarkably complex –Mostly invisible and hardly sampled –Not taught, yet learned effortlessly –Occurs in early childhood BOTTOM LINE: Teaching may be a natural cognitive predisposition

51 5. Where to Go Empirically to Test Development of Cognitive Prerequisites and Teaching? Phylogenetic emergence: Primates and lower (Christophe Boesch, Uri Leron, Danny Povinelli, Elisa Visalberghi) Research on toddlers: ontogenetic emergence (MA theses: Adi Stein; Ayelet Solomon; Noah Mor; BA honors thesis: Anna Gavrilov) Pragmatics in linguistics differences between cheating (deception) and teaching (Ziv& Frye)

52 Where to Go Empirically For Cognitive Prerequisites for Teaching? Children translating Teaching among extremely gifted teachers: adult developmental end point Developmental or physiological problems - high functioning autistic syndrome/Asperger (Ronny Friedman with Margalit Ziv) Margalit Ziv) - brain damage (prefrontal lobe) and teaching (Noga Balaban with Naama Friedman) Naama Friedman) - specific language impairment: semantic-pragmatic deficit (MA thesis: Anna Gavrilov with Naama Friedmann and (MA thesis: Anna Gavrilov with Naama Friedmann and Margalit Ziv) Margalit Ziv) - teaching disabilities (!)

53 Where to Go Empirically For Cognitive Prerequisites for Teaching? Formal systems of analysis – AI, artificial life (Tzur Sayag, Matt – AI, artificial life (Tzur Sayag, Matt Schlessinger) Schlessinger) Theory of mind theory and research (Margalit Ziv)

54 6. Teacher Education Implications “That’s all right in practice. But does it work in theory?”* Attributed to a former Irish prime minister in response to policy proposals. Times Literary Supplement, Terry Eagleton, September 3, 1999, p. 18 *Thanks to Talma Yzraely for this quote

55 Teacher Education Implications What I do NOT, NOT, NOT want to say If : toddlers request and are sensitive to teaching preschoolers know how to teach toddlers request and are sensitive to teaching preschoolers know how to teachThen, there is no room for teacher education there is no room for teacher education

56 Teacher Education Implications What I do want to say: We may want to think about teacher education in ways unlike our present thinking Some of this thinking informed by developmental considerations Some of this thinking informed by developmental considerations what is different about children’s and adults’ teaching

57 Teacher Education Implications Analogy to children’s science and math concepts and how to teach to those concepts Analogy to children’s science and math concepts and how to teach to those concepts Teachers have “mis”conceptions about teaching, the mind, etc. Teachers have “mis”conceptions about teaching, the mind, etc. –They are resistant to change –My experience Teaching teachers to teach in constructivist ways has not been completely successful Teaching teachers to teach in constructivist ways has not been completely successful Often return to direct transmission (DT) model Often return to direct transmission (DT) model Perhaps children’s natural cognitive ability is a precursor of adults’ DT model Perhaps children’s natural cognitive ability is a precursor of adults’ DT model

58 Teacher Education Implications Roles of various content in teacher education curricula: *subject matter won’t change how teachers teach will change what is taught *teaching techniques for subject matter *theories of learning and development minimal Piaget – use as a metaphor minimal Piaget – use as a metaphor*mind-reading subject matter-related subject matter-related analogy to clinical psychology analogy to clinical psychology training training

59 7. Weaknesses of the Approach Separating teaching from other forms of social communication Separating teaching from other forms of social communication –Conversation, argument, cheating, etc. Probably implicates intentionality Probably implicates intentionality –Mother-infant interactions Definitions of intentionality (for teaching) Definitions of intentionality (for teaching) –Searle, Dennett –May be levels of intentionality Lack of precise definition of teaching Lack of precise definition of teaching –Makes use of computational models, Alife difficult –Narrow versus broad

60 7. Weaknesses of the Approach Developmental issues Developmental issues –Age differences do not mean developmental differences –What are the psychological entities that develop? –What are the mechanisms governing development?

61 Summary 1. teaching and the cognitive sciences writ large haven’t yet met 2. teaching may be a natural cognitive predisposition 3. cognitive prerequisites of teaching *declarative and procedural knowledge 4. my claims about ontogenesis *cognitive prerequisites develop, leading to emergence of teaching to emergence of teaching *after its emergence, teaching develops 5. new places to go empirically 6. teacher education 7. weaknesses of the approach

62 גמרנו I hope you: noticed that teaching is an extraordinarily rich domain noticed that teaching is an extraordinarily rich domain found interest in these ideas found interest in these ideas

63 Cognitive Prerequisites of Teaching: Declarative Knowledge Partial list of epistemological assumptions Others have a mind Others have a mind –Same as mine The mind contains knowledge, beliefs The mind contains knowledge, beliefs –Same as and different than mine What is in the mind gets expressed veridically (truth) or non- veridically (fibs/lies) What is in the mind gets expressed veridically (truth) or non- veridically (fibs/lies) You teach someone you believe has insufficient knowledge (false belief about teaching) You teach someone you believe has insufficient knowledge (false belief about teaching) Psychological causality Psychological causality –Action-at-a-distance

64 Cognitive Prerequisites of Teaching: Procedural Knowledge Feedback loops when teaching - On-line theory of mind Teacher teaches Teacher teaches –Attempts to read others’ Knowledge, beliefs, skills Knowledge, beliefs, skills Emotional state Emotional state Motivational state Motivational state

65 Cognitive Prerequisites of Teaching Feedback loops when teaching (continued) When a teacher believes the pupils do/do not understand the material When a teacher believes the pupils do/do not understand the material –Representation of the correct understanding –Representation of the pupils’ correct/incorrect understanding –Detect a match/mismatch If mismatch, leads to new teaching strategy If mismatch, leads to new teaching strategy Based on the teacher’s understanding of Based on the teacher’s understanding of –the mind (ignorance, partial knowledge, misconception) –how learning takes place in the mind

66 Cognitive Prerequisites of Teaching: Procedural Knowledge Executive function (umbrella term) Executive function (umbrella term) –Planning –Working memory –Impulse control –Inhibition –Mental flexibility –Initiating action –Monitoring action –Monitoring one’s and others’ mental states Mostly involves disengaging from immediate environment to guide actions Mostly involves disengaging from immediate environment to guide actions

67 Cognitive Prerequisites of Teaching: Procedural Knowledge Mutual monitoring related to roles Mutual monitoring related to roles Who is the teacher? Who is the teacher? –More knowledge (more power) Who is the learner? Who is the learner? –Less knowledge (less power) Teacher Teacher –Monitors and manages, directs, and controls learners’ mental, emotional, motivational states –Decides when and how to teach –Monitors the results of teaching Learner Learner –Monitors teacher’s teaching –Attempts to understand teachers’ representation of the domain, problem, issue

68 Cognitive and Interpersonal Prerequisites of Teaching: Discourse Model David Bearison et al.; Bill Damon David Bearison et al.; Bill Damon Regulatory properties of discourse between expert and novice change in the course of teaching Regulatory properties of discourse between expert and novice change in the course of teaching –When teaching begins, teacher directs, manages, controls discourse. –Maintained by both teacher and learner during instruction –As learner knows more, the discourse becomes more one of collaboration Knowing how to do that is essential for teaching Knowing how to do that is essential for teaching

69 Theory of Mind An understanding that others have beliefs, desires, emotions, intentions, motivations An understanding that others have beliefs, desires, emotions, intentions, motivations –May be different than one’s own –Others may have false beliefs Classic task Classic task

70 Teaching Instinct: Cultural Evolution Cultures replicate themselves Cultures replicate themselves –Tomasello et al. (1993) Technologies that allow this replication Technologies that allow this replication –myths –artifacts –institutions –ceremonies Teaching is also a technology devised to pass on cultural knowledge Teaching is also a technology devised to pass on cultural knowledge –Preserves cultural innovations –Has value as a survival mechanism

71 Teaching Instinct: Cultural Evolution Controversy about what gets passed on memes (Blackmore, 1999; Dawkins, 1999) “an element of a culture that may be considered to be passed on by non- genetic means, especially imitation” (Dawkins, 1999, p.viii) Controversy about mechanisms imitation (Blackmore, 1999; Dawkins, 1999;imitation (Blackmore, 1999; Dawkins, 1999; Tomasello et al. 1993) Tomasello et al. 1993) contagion (Sperber, 2000) contagion (Sperber, 2000)

72 Teaching Instinct: Cultural Evolution BOTTOM LINE: BOTTOM LINE: Teaching plays a role in cultural Teaching plays a role in cultural –Transmission and preservation –Maybe not cultural innovation

73 Development of Teaching Once Teaching Emerges: Research in China with Jin Li Teach rules verbally? Teach by demonstr a-ting? Say rules to experi- menter before teaching? Know how to play? ½ ½ ½

74 Nativist Claims Revisited Although teaching meets some nativist criteria Although teaching meets some nativist criteria –Unlikely there is a teaching module –Teaching is one kind of communication

75 Nativist Claims Revisited Nativists do not make developmental claims like Piaget Nativists do not make developmental claims like Piaget Minimal roles for Minimal roles for –culture –social interaction

76 Development of Teaching (Not Prerequisites for Teaching): Sensitivity to Teaching Among Toddlers Sensitivity to teaching may appear among 2-year-olds Naming of objects What is involved in a child asking for an object’s name? 1. “Knows” that objects have names 2. Knows that he does not know the name 3. Believes others have knowledge of the name (2+3 – knowledge gap) name (2+3 – knowledge gap) 4. A request will yield the name from someone someone

77 Development of Teaching: Sensitivity to Teaching Among Toddlers BOTTOM LINE: 2-year-olds may have a sensitivity towards teaching Strauss, S., & Ziv, M. (2001). A request for naming may be a request for teaching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24,

78 What Is Teaching, Anyway? Biological definition “An individual actor A can be said to teach if it modifies its behaviors only in the presence of a naïve observer, B, at some cost or at least without obtaining an immediate benefit for itself. A’s behavior thereby encourages or punishes B’s behavior, or provides B with experience or sets an example for B. As a result, B acquires knowledge or learns a skill earlier in life or more rapidly or efficiently than it might otherwise do, or that it would not learn at all.” “An individual actor A can be said to teach if it modifies its behaviors only in the presence of a naïve observer, B, at some cost or at least without obtaining an immediate benefit for itself. A’s behavior thereby encourages or punishes B’s behavior, or provides B with experience or sets an example for B. As a result, B acquires knowledge or learns a skill earlier in life or more rapidly or efficiently than it might otherwise do, or that it would not learn at all.” Caro, T. M. & Hauser, M. D. (1992) Is there teaching in nonhuman animals? The Quarterly Review of Biology, 67,

79 What is Teaching, Anyway? Biological definition motivated by Biological definition motivated by –Evolutionary theory –Empirical work, ethology and lab This definition of teaching does not require an This definition of teaching does not require an –understanding of others’ minds – intentionality Partial consensus: Very little teaching with this broad definition Partial consensus: Very little teaching with this broad definition –Visalberghi (1996), Premack (2004), Povinelli (1993) but see Boesch (1993), Savage-Rumbaugh

80 Development of the Cognitive Prerequisites of Teaching Declarative Knowledge Gopnik, Meltzoff, Tomasello, Woodward Others are intentional agents (~ 1½ years) Others are intentional agents (~ 1½ years) Others have a mind: intentionality (~ 1½ years) Others have a mind: intentionality (~ 1½ years) –Same as mine The mind contains knowledge, skills, beliefs The mind contains knowledge, skills, beliefs –Same as and different than mine (~ 4 years) What is in the mind gets expressed veridically (truth) or non-veridically (lies/fibs) (untested) What is in the mind gets expressed veridically (truth) or non-veridically (lies/fibs) (untested) Psychological causality Psychological causality –Action-at-a-distance (untested)

81 Development of the Cognitive Prerequisites of Teaching Procedural Knowledge Executive function (umbrella term) Executive function (umbrella term) –Planning –Working memory –Impulse control –Inhibition –Mental flexibility –Initiating action –Monitoring action –Monitoring one’s and others’ states Mostly involves disengaging from immediate environment to guide actions Mostly involves disengaging from immediate environment to guide actions?


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