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1 st President of the Republic of Texas Sam Houston.

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1 1 st President of the Republic of Texas Sam Houston

2 Houston’s Goals For Texas Houston laid out these goals during his first address of the Texas Congress: Stressed a need for peace with American Indians Spoke of the need to stay alert and on guard against attack by Mexico Wanted Texas to be annexed by the United States

3 1 st Actions in Office He needed to appoint a cabinet of executive department heads to assist him. Stephen F. Austin becomes secretary of state and after a few months dies and Sam Houston declares him the “Father of Texas” Henry Smith become secretary of the treasury Thomas J. Rusk as secretary of war Samuel Rhoads Fisher as secretary of the navy The constitution requires a court system be set up in Texas. The new congress sets up a supreme court, four district courts, 23 county courts, and a justice court.

4 1 st Actions in Office Continued The new Republic needed to specify its boundaries. Congress claims the Rio Grande as the border of the new Republic. The Mexican government does not recognize the border. Many people who live south and west of the Nueces River still consider themselves Mexicans. The new Republic of Texas needed a capital. Two brothers, John and Augustus Allen offer their newly founded town, Houston, as the state capital. The brothers offer incentives such as providing government buildings and lodging for officials. Houston becomes the new capital. In January 1837 the town of Houston had 12 residents and one log cabin. Four months later 1,500 people lived there.

5 Texas vs.. Mexican Boundaries

6 Problem #1 Many volunteers from the United States arrived too late but were still wanting to fight Mexico, which causes growing unrest among the troops. Some, like the army’s commander Felix Huston, wanted to invade Mexico. Houston replaces Huston with Albert Johnston to ease tensions Huston challenges Johnston to a duel and Johnston is severely wounded. Solution To regain control Houston placed all but 600 troops on leave and never recalls them. Result Putting the army on leave worked. Houston relies on the Texas Rangers to defend the frontier and keep the peace. The Texas Rangers rode horses and used new pistols called revolvers.

7 Problem #2 The new nation (Texas) has serious economic problems. Solution The government tries to raise money by selling land, asking the United States for loans and collecting taxes and custom duties. The government increased the money supply by printing paper money. The government also tries to give away land (which Texas has plenty of) to stimulate the economy. Result The government has no gold or silver to back the money. Confidence in the government fell, value of the money dropped.

8 Problem #3 Although the Republic was in debt, it was rich in land. Solution Texas officials gave away a lot of land hoping the various land policies would help the economy by increasing settlement. (37 million acres of territory) Result Land speculation was rarely profitable because land was so easy to obtain.

9 Problem #4 The new nation needed to have a policy on how it would handle any conflicts with American Indians. As settlements spread onto Indian land, many conflicts arose. Solution Sam Houston had lived with the Cherokee and even became a citizen of the Cherokee nation. He had married a Cherokee woman years before. His experiences caused him to be sympathetic with the Indians. Houston wanted to give the Cherokee title to and control over land in East Texas. The Texas Senate refused. Remember Texans was the land they had just fought for! Sam Houston wanted to make peace with the Indians. Houston and Congress set up a policy establishing a line of forts along the frontier and encouraging trade with the Indians.

10 Result Some Texans did not approve of Houston’s policy. They thought Houston’s Indian policy was slowing westward development. Conflict made it difficult to maintain peaceful relations. Texans were angered because they wanted the land You’re OUT!

11 2 nd President of the Republic of Texas Mirabeau Lamar

12 1 st Actions of Lamar Presidents of the new republic could not run consecutive terms.-write this on your content frame! Lamar is elected the second President. Lamar did not like Houston and disagreed with most of his policies. Lamar wanted Texas to have a better public educational system. Lamar becomes known as the “Father of Texas Education” Lamar wants to pick a permanent capitol for Texas. The government picks a town and renames it Austin. Lamar’s administration passes a homestead law that protected a family’s home and up to 50 acres from seizure for debts.

13 Problems #1 & 2 Under Lamar, financial problems worsened. The value of the Texas currency fell. Military spending rises from $881,000 under Houston to $1.5 million dollars mainly due to Lamar’s Indian policy. Lamar spent money on the Navy which included 6 new ships. Solution The state issues new money called red backs. Result The red backs were worthless within 3 (highlight in your notes) years. Texas’ debt rose from $3.3 million to 8 million during Lamar’s Presidency.

14 Problem #3 Lamar dislike the Indians and wanted to remove them from Texas. Solution Lamar orders the Cherokee to leave Texas, but they refuse. Lamar sent soldiers to forcibly remove them. Fighting breaks out in the Battle of Neches and more then 100 Cherokee lay dead including Chief Bowles. March 19,1840 Comanche Indians go to the Council House in San Antonio to talk peace. They did not bring all their captives as instructed. The Council House Fight ended in 35 Comanche deaths including women and children and the death of at least 7 Texans.

15 Result The Comanche kill their remaining captives. Fighting between Texans escalates and during the Battle of Plum Creek more then 130 Comanche are killed. Texan forces continue to drive the Comanche out of Texas. By the end of his term, Lamar had achieved his goal of removing the Cherokee from East Texas. However, some Texans were concerned about the increased warfare and the expense that went with it. Lamar’s Indian policy cost the Republic $2.5 million and many lives. Ha Ha Ha Ha!!!

16 3rd President of the Republic of Texas Sam Houston

17 Problems #1 & 2 Sam Houston wants to create a balanced budget-where spending doesn’t exceed revenue. He struggled to reduce the growing national debt. Solution Houston cuts jobs and salaries, cut the size of the army and the Rangers. Houston had new money printed to replace the red backs. Result Houston drops the budget from 4.8 million to $500,000, but is still unable to balance the budget and debt continued to rise. Value of the new money quickly fell (test question) because Texans had little faith in the money their government issued.

18 Problem #3 Houston wants to return his peaceful policy toward on American Indians. Solution Houston encourages trade with the Indians by establishing frontier trading posts. (Highlight for test) He signs peace treaties with various Indian groups. Leaders of Indian groups and the Texas government agree to stop fighting. Result The leaders hold a peace council. The Comanche and Houston sign a peace treaty the Treaty of Tehuacana Creek. Peace between American Indians and settlers returned to the Texas frontier for a time. However, this treaty does not establish boundaries for Comanche land which will become an issue later on.

19 Biggest difference between Houston and Lamar? Treatment of The Indians Friend Enemy


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