Presentation on theme: "Lamar’s Presidency. Lamar In Office In September of 1838, Texans had elected new leaders. Under the Republic’s constitution, a president could not serve."— Presentation transcript:
Lamar In Office In September of 1838, Texans had elected new leaders. Under the Republic’s constitution, a president could not serve consecutive terms, or two terms in a row. Texans elected Mirabeau B. Lamar as their new president and David G. Burnet as vice- president.
Lamar In Office On taking office in 1839, President Lamar stressed the need for a public education system. Following Lamar’s lead, the Congress passed education acts in 1839 and 1840. These acts granted each county 17,772 acres of land to support public schools. The government also sent aside 231,400, for the future establishment of two public universities.
Lamar In Office The first college in the Republic to receive a charter, was Rutersville College, near LaGrange, in 1840. The Republic never established a public school system or public universities. Because of low land prices, land grants set aside to fund these schools were not worth much money. Lamar is know as the Father of Texas Education. Rutersville College
A New Capital During Lamar’s administration, the government selected a permanent capital for Texas. Lamar thought Houston was too far east and wanted to move the political center of Texas west. The capital was moved to a settlement called Waterloo on the Colorado River and it was renamed Austin. Many Texans thought Austin was too isolated and too far west. Austin, 1840
Land and Economic Policies In January 1839, the Congress passed a Homestead Law that protected a family’s home and up to 50 acres of land from seizure for debts. Thus, most creditors could not sell a Texan’s home to cover debts.
Land and Economic Policies The public debt increased as the value of Texas currency fell. The Republic responded by issuing new paper money certificate called “red backs”. The value of these red backs dropped quickly and were worthless within three years of their printing. Republic of Texas Red back
Land and Economic Policies Texas Naval Ship “Zavala” The Republic’s debt was largely to blame. Because of rising military expenses, the government spent more than it collected in revenue. Military spending rose from $881,000 under Houston to more than $1.5 million under Lamar. Part of this money went to reoutfit the Texas Navy with new ships.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy Lamar’s American Indian policy contributed to the rise in military spending. Lamar disliked Indians and wanted to remove them from Texas.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy In 1839, Lamar ordered the Cherokee out of Texas. When the Cherokee refused, Lamar sent some 500 soldiers led by Kelsey Douglass to forcibly remove them.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy In July, fighting broke out near the Neches River. After several days of fighting in this Battle of the Neches, more than 100 Cherokee lay dead, including Chief Bowles.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy Texas forces then pursued most of the surviving Cherokee north into Indian Territory in the United States. Some other American Indians, including the Caddo and Shawnee, also left northeastern Texas during this time.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy Conflict between Texas settlers and the Comanche had also worsened. In January 1839, Lamar sent Col. John H. Moore to attack the Comanche living west of the Texas settlements. Moore and his troops fought the Comanche in a series of conflicts. As a result of these raids, the Comanche eventually agreed to peace talks.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy In March 19, 1840, about 65 Comanche men, women and children arrived at the Council House in San Antonio for peace talks. The Texas officials had ordered the Comanche to bring all their captives. The Comanche representatives only brought a few. One captive, a teenage girl, Matilda Lockhart, reported that the Comanche still held 15 Texans captive.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy When Texans demanded their release, the Comanche chief Muk-wah-ruh, responded that he did not have the authority over the Comanche holding those captives.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy Then the Texans tried to take the Comanche representatives hostage in exchange for the captives. The Comanche leaders called for help from their friends who were waiting outside. Fighting broke out in and around the Council House.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy By the battle’s end, 35 Comanche lay dead, including 12 chiefs, 3 women and 2 children. At least 7 Texans also died. This Council House Fight, probably destroyed any hope for peace.
Lamar’s American Indian Policy When the Comanche heard about the massacre, they were outraged. Large Comanche raiding parties struck Linnville and Victoria, killing more than 20 settlers, burning houses and stealing supplies and livestock
Lamar’s American Indian Policy Texas settlers called for revenge for the Comanche raids. A force of volunteers, regular soldiers and Texas Rangers formed. The Texans found the Comanche on August 11, 1840. The Texan force attacked. During the Battle of Plum Creek, more than 130 Comanche were killed. One Texan was killed and seven were wounded.
Results of Lamar’s Policies Despite this victory, many Texas settlers still feared the Comanche. Texas officials decided to strike farther into the frontier area known as Comanche country and had several skirmishes with the Comanche. Following these defeats, the Comanche moved farther north beyond the Red River.
Results of Lamar’s Policies By the end of his term, Lamar had achieved his goal of removing the Cherokee from East Texas. The Comanche had also been pushed further north and west, opening up vast lands for settlement.
Results of Lamar’s Policies However, Lamar’s new policy prove a disaster for Texas Indians. American Indians in Texas has lost land and suffered severely. Some Texans were concerned about the increased warfare and the expense that went with it. Lamar’s Indian Policy had cost the Republic $2.5 million and many lives.
Results of Lamar’s Policies In addition, Lamar’s policies had contributed a soaring national debt. During his term, the debt rose from $3.3 million to over $8 million.