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The Beginning: Sam Houston’s First Term as President of the New Republic.

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2 The Beginning: Sam Houston’s First Term as President of the New Republic

3  Sam Houston’s Government  Houston Forms a Government (p. 270)  In September 1836, months after the revolution, Texans held an election. In the election they: Elected Sam Houston as their 1 st president Elected Mirabeau B. Lamar as their 1 st Vice President Approved the Constitution written at the Convention of 1836 Approved a proposal that Texas join the United States  Houston chose Stephen F. Austin as the Secretary of State Sadly, Austin died only a few weeks later. He was 43 years old.  The new leaders selected Houston as their capital for three years. The decision on a permanent capital was delayed.

4 So… Texas now has everything we need to start out as a NEW NATION… The Republic of Texas!!!! Sam Houston President Mirabeau Lamar Vice President We don’t want you!!!! Texas Constitution New leaders New government and laws A new capital However, according to the election in September of 1836, how did MOST Texans (that voted) feel about remaining independent forever? They wanted to be part of the fabulous United States!

5 Let’s talk about these new leaders… We know they elected a president… Sam Houston President And a vice president… Mirabeau Lamar Vice President You also need to know that President Houston had a CABINET NO!!! Not a file cabinet… A cabinet, when you are referring to government, is a group of ADVISERS to a political head of government (like a president) The president, since he is the boss now and everything, gets to CHOOSE which advisers he wants to be in his cabinet. These advisors are NOT ELECETD… they are APPOINTED.

6 What kind of advisors did he have? Some of the positions in Houston’s cabinet were: The Secretary of State The Secretary of the Treasury The Secretary of War

7 What does the Secretary of the Treasury do? Even before the Revolution was over, the new Republic of Texas was in debt... they had money problems. The office of the Secretary of the Treasury in the president’s cabinet was created to manage the new nation’s MONEY. He is the main ECONOMIC advisor to the president and plays a really important role in dealing with any economic problems or issues the government may face. The Secretary is responsible for making and recommending tax policies, and other necessary financial or economic solutions to problems faced by the new nation. What does the Secretary of State do? The Secretary of State advises the president on foreign affairs, and spends a lot of time traveling around the world to meet with world leaders. What does the Secretary of War do? The Secretary of War is responsible for all military matters that face the new nation, including the Texas Army and the Texas Navy. They also work with the Secretary of the Treasury to help the new nation fund any military activities that need to be carried out.

8 It’s time to step into… You guys are going to pretend that you are President Houston and his new cabinet. You will be presented with some problems that the new republic faced after they became independent. As our new leaders, it is your responsibility to work together to solve these problems. And yes… ALL your solutions HAVE to be realistic… no aliens, magic, or freaky stuff… only Ms. Fleming has the power to create that stuff in Flemingworld!!!

9 The Revolution was over, but there were still a bunch of guys in Texas who wanted to fight Mexico! Dang… drop it already… Problem #1 Military How did Houston solve it in the REAL WORLD? (p. 271) Houston Faces Trouble With the Army He realized another war with Mexico could mean an end to the new republic He had his Secretary of War send the entire army home, EXCEPT for 600 soldiers… (No more army? No more problem!)

10 In order for Texas to survive as a new nation, other nations and to agree that we were independent from Mexico. Otherwise, they wouldn’t do business with us… this is called RECOGNITION Problem #2 Recognition How did Houston solve it in the REAL WORLD? (p. 272-273) Recognition as a Nation He had his Secretary of State send diplomats to the US to work for recognition The US finally recognized the Republic of Texas on March 3, 1837 Other countries that recognized us were Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands Mexico NEVER did…

11 The revolution is over, but the Indians have decided that now would be a great time to step up the raids… they are killing and kidnapping more settlers than ever! Problem #3 Indians How did Houston solve it in the REAL WORLD? (p. 273-274) Native American and Texan Conflicts Houston had his Secretary of War call on the Texas Rangers to help with the Indian attacks Houston also tried to make peace with the Cherokees by giving them titles to their land in East Texas… the Texas Senate, however, refused to accept this

12 It sure was nice of the US and other countries to give us money to fight Mexico… however, now we have to pay back the $1.25 million that they (and others) loaned us PLUS we need money to run the new nation… Problem #4 Money How did Houston solve this in the REAL WORLD? (p. 274) Texas Debt Soars Houston had his Secretary of the Treasury increase REVENUE by placing a TARIFF on imported goods Congress imposed property taxes, business taxes and title fees We still had more EXPENDITURES than revenue… By the end of Houston’s first term, we were $2 million in debt

13 Houston’s First Term RECAP Major PROBLEMS During His First Term Recognition Military Annexation Native Americans Debt Santa Anna

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